2015年04月29日

マグリットのタイトル〜「マグリット展」を見ての覚え書き

 先日国立新美術館で見たマグリット展は、自分にとっては生涯三度目の「マグリット展」だったのだが(一度目は1988年の東京国立近代美術館、二度目は2002年にBunkamuraザ・ミュージアムで。1994年の巡回展は見逃している)、そこで受けた感銘の大きさは過去の二回を遥かに超え、衝撃と形容できるほどのものだった。
 もちろん単純に展示内容が素晴らしかったということもあるのだが、それに加えて個人的なタイミングもそこには関係していたのだと思う。というのも、最近(というかここ何年かずっと)自分は「絵」と「言葉」の関係について考え続けているのだが、およそマグリットほどこの問題について深く考え抜いた画家も他にいないように思われるからである。

 今回の展示を見ていて思ったのは「マグリットの作品は“詩”なのではないか?」ということだった。それは何の根拠にも基づかない単なる「直感」だったのだが、基本的に自分は直感を無視しないよう日ごろから努めている。もちろんそこには「“詩”とはなにか?」いう大問題が潜んでいるわけだが、とりあえずそれは棚上げにしたまま、ここでは「詩」をキーワードに、その直感について検証してみたいと思う。


 以前「世界で一番タイトルを付けるのが上手い画家は誰だろう?」といったことを戯れに考えてみたことがある。頭の片隅でボンヤリと幾人かの巨匠の名前を思い浮かべた結果、「とりあえずクレーがダントツかな〜」と結論付けようとしたとき、「そーいえばアイツがいた!」と思い出した作家がいる。他でもないマグリットだ。
 しかし、いざ「タイトルを付けるのが一番上手い画家選手権」の王座を巡ってこの二人を決勝の場で対峙させてみると、なんだかどうも落ち着きが悪いのだ。クレーのタイトルの絶妙さは別次元のものだが、しかしタイトルの付け方や上手い下手の基準は一般の画家とそれほど変わらない気がする。それに対してマグリットの場合は、「ルール」が異なるというか、そもそも構造的に作品における絵とタイトルの関係が他の作家たちとは違っているような気がするのである。
 たとえばクレーの絵のタイトルの場合、完成された絵に対して無数の選択肢のなかから一番「ぴったり」なものが選ばれた、という感覚がある。だからもしその絵に別のタイトルを付けても、オリジナルのタイトルが「もっといいタイトル」として潜在的にその絵のなかに存在し続けるように思える。つまりどんなタイトルが付けられても、作品自体の本質は変わらないのである。この場合の「タイトル付け」のポイントは、その最上の選択肢をいかに上手く「言い当てる」かどうかにかかっている。クレーはそれが世界チャンピオン級に巧みなのである。
 しかしマグリットの場合、絵とタイトルの関係はもっと不安定だ。もちろんマグリットの作品もクレーの作品と同様に「もっとも相応しいタイトル」が付けられているという感覚はある。しかしクレーと異なるのは、マグリットの絵の場合は、別のタイトルが付けられたら、そこで作品の本質自体が変質してしまうような気がするのである。タイトルを付けることによって作品の本質が変質するのならば、タイトルが選択されるまではその作品の本質を射抜く「もっとも相応しいタイトル」はこの世に存在しないことになる。なぞなぞの問いに先行して答えが存在しえないのと同じである。つまり「もっとも相応しいタイトル」がクレーの作品は絵に内在されているように感じるのに対し、マグリットの場合は絵とタイトルの「関係」のなかにこそ「もっとも相応しいタイトル」を決定する条件が存在しているように思うのだ。言い換えれば、「作品」の成立の条件がクレーとマグリットでは異なるのである
 この二人を「タイトル付け選手権」の決勝の場で並べてみたときに「ルール」が違うと感じるのは、そのためだろう。つまりどちらの作品においてもタイトルが非常に重要な意味を持つという点では一致するが、その選択のスキルは異なるように思われるのである。

 ここではマグリットの作品を「詩」だと感じた自分の直感を検証しようとしているわけだが、一般的に「詩」のイメージと強く結びついているのは、むしろクレーのほうだろう。「詩情」はクレーの作品を形容する際に使われる月並みなキーワードである。自分もクレーの作品、とくにその絵とタイトルとの結びつきの効果には「詩」を感じるし、そこから受ける感覚を形容するためには「詩情豊か」といった表現を特に深く悩むことなく使うことだろう。
 しかしクレーの作品から感じる「詩」と、マグリットの作品に感じた「詩」が同じものかと問われると、う〜〜んと詰まってしまう。同じ人間が同じ言葉を使って形容しているのだから当然そこには同じ感覚があってしかるべきはずなのだが、しかしなにか根本的な部分で異なるものがあるようにも感じる。その「違い」の感覚は、二人のタイトルの付け方の「絶妙さ」の違いとどこかで結びついている気がする。
 したがって、まずは比較のために、クレーの絵とタイトルの組み合わせから感じる「詩」について考えてみることにする。

 クレーが言葉のセンスにおいて詩的な才能に長けていたことは、作品リストのタイトルだけを眺めていても窺い知ることができる。しかしそれらのタイトルは、絵をそっちのけにしてドヤ顔で自己主張するような仰々しいものではない。もっと自然に絵に寄り添って、それでいて言葉自体からも詩的な響きが感じられるような、さりげないが洗練されたタイトルなのだ。
 しかしクレーの作品における「詩」の発露は、絵とタイトルが組み合わされたときにこそ初めてその真価を発揮するのだと言える。そのことはタイトル単体だけでは直ちには詩情には繋がらないようなごくシンプルな題の作品について見れば理解できる。
 ≪赤い風船≫、≪野いちご≫、≪戸棚≫、≪猫と鳥≫、≪赤と白の丸屋根≫、≪本道と脇道≫、≪征服者≫、≪島≫、≪大聖堂≫、≪大天使≫、いずれもクレーの絵のタイトルだが、これらのタイトルが付けられ、その効果によって「詩」を感じさせる絵は、やはり限定されるだろう。たとえば古典的な技法でリアルに描いた大聖堂や天使の絵が「大聖堂」、「大天使」と題されていても、そのことによって「詩」を感じるようになるといったことはまず起こりえないのだ。なぜならばそれは説明のための「名札」と変わらないからである。
 しかしこれらの単体ではなんでもない言葉も、クレーの絵のタイトルになると、途端に「詩」を感じさせるものへと変化するのだ。つまり絵と言葉が結びつくことによって、そこでナニカが起こるのである。それは単なる詩的なイメージと詩的な言葉の組み合わせによる足し算的な効果ではない、融合と生成を生じさせる激しい化学反応のようなものがそこで生じるのである。

 その「化学反応」が生じる秘密には、クレーの絵の抽象性が深く関係しているように思われる。クレーの絵は19世紀以前の西洋絵画に比べれば格段に抽象性の高いものだが、しかし完全なる抽象画はむしろ少数派で、その多くはなんらかの具象的な形態を画面に残している。
 そしてそれらの絵にタイトルが付けられるとき、色やかたちの連なりのなかに埋没してしまいそうなイメージが、タイトルで示された言葉によって名指しされて像を結び、その存在を明らかにする。赤色の円が風船に見え出し、半弧の描線が寺院の丸屋根となり、画面にちりばめられた記号的なかたちが天使へと変わる。
 完全な抽象画の場合も、クレーの絶妙なタイトルセンスによって、なんとなくその言葉に沿ったものが描かれているように見えてくるから不思議だ。≪いにしえの響き≫や≪花ひらいて≫といった作品は、画面いっぱいに色とりどりの四角形がグリッド状に描かれているに過ぎないのだが、それぞれのタイトルで名指された瞬間から、その言葉通りのものがそこに描かれているように見えてくるのである。

 このタイトルが付くことによって「そう見えてくる」という意識の動きこそが重要であると考える。つまりそのとき絵は、見る者の意識のなかで「動いている」。
 そのダイナミズムの大きさは、クレーの絵の「言われて見ると、そう見える」くらいの抽象度と、いったん名指された後はもう他の見え方ができなくなる絶妙な言葉のセンスに因っている。その結果としてクレーの絵は、言葉が付与されることよる絵の見え方の変化がメチャクチャ大きいのだ。
 その変化は躍動感に満ちている。言葉の力によって今まで見えていたイメージがまったく新たな相貌をあらわし、絵のなかで想像力のさざ波が広がる。その波動は言葉の側にもこだまし、その言葉自体に秘められていた余情や含意の可能性が画面内の色やかたちと共鳴して、こちらもまた動き始める。この「動き」の連鎖への驚きを、我々は「詩情あふれる」といった言葉で表現しているのではないか。

 つまり絵と言葉が組み合わされるとき、絵の見え方にも、言葉の響きにも、何の変化も起こらないとしたら、そこに「詩」は生まれない。そこで起こる変化こそが重要なのだ。クレーの作品は、その変化のダイナミズムの躍動感とハーモニーが、見るものに「詩」を感じさせるのだろう。


 では翻って、マグリットの場合はどうか。クレーとマグリットの作品を比較したとき、次の二つの大きな差異に気づく。
 まず第一点は、絵柄の違いである。クレーの抽象性の高い絵に対し、マグリットの絵はそれとは真逆に抽象性を徹底的に排除した描法で描かれている。クレーの絵では、描かれたものは色の面にも、線の連なりにも、抽象的な図形にも、あるいは具体的なモチーフにも見える。その境界はあいまいで、見るものの視覚のなかでフラジャイルにその相貌を変化させる。それがクレーの絵画の「豊かさ」を生むのだが、マグリットの採る描画法では、そうした「絵画的な豊かさ」を生み出すような要素はむしろ積極的に排除されているのだ。マグリットの絵では個々のモチーフが、それが何であるかを「見紛うことのないように」描かれている。
 違いの第二点は、タイトルと描かれたイメージとの関係である。マグリットのタイトルは描かれたイメージと容易に結びつかないような突飛なものがほとんどだ。クレーのタイトルが描かれた対象を名指しして見ているものに「自分が何を見ているか」を明確にする効果をあげるのに対し、マグリットのタイトルはむしろ見るものに混乱を与え、「自分が何を見ているか」をわからなくする方向へと機能する。
 おそらくこの二点は関連している。まずはマグリットの描写について考えてみよう。

 自分の知り合いには「マグリットは面白いと思うけど、あの描写がなぁ〜」と看板絵のように深みのないマグリットの絵の描写を馬鹿にしている者が何人かいる。どうも自分の少ない知己を基準にする限り、「絵画」の深みがわかる者ほどマグリットの描写の「深みのなさ」を見下す傾向があるようなのだ。
 しかし言うまでもなく、あの描写は意図的に選択されたものである。そして自分は、マグリットの作品において何をおいても重要なのは、あの描写だと思うのだ(第二次世界大戦前後に一時的に描法が変化する時期があるが、その頃の作品はマグリットにおける描写の重要性を逆説的に証明しているように思える。)
 マグリットの描写から排除されているものは、クレーの絵のような抽象性や「絵画的な豊かさ」だけではない。対象に肉薄するリアリズムや、あるいは画家の超絶技巧的な技量の誇示のようなものも、そこでは目指されていない。それは古典的な具象絵画の描写ともまた違うものなのだ。つまり抽象性を排除して「何が描いてあるか」が明確にされる一方、描かれる対象ないし描き手の個性や情感がそこに入り込む余地がないような「匿名的」な描写こそが目指されているのである。
 マグリットがリンゴを描くとき、彼は目の前にある「このリンゴ」を描こうとはしない。彼が描くのは一般概念としての「リンゴ」の像なのだ。それを実現するためにマグリットの絵からは、抽象性も、対象を特定できる個性も、そして画家自身の感情や性格すらも追放されるのである。あの「深み」の感じられない「匿名的」な描写は、そのためにこそ選択されているのだ。
 マグリットは自作への精神分析的な解釈を嫌ったと言うが当然だろう。描かれた対象から読み取れる作者の内面などは、対象の「概念化」のためには阻害要因にしかないからである。マグリットは生涯を平凡な一市民のように暮らしたというが、それも自身の絵の描写の「純粋性」を保つためだったのではないだろうか。同じシュルレアリスムのスターであるダリが、奇矯な振る舞いを売り物とした「天才」を生涯演じ続け、その結果としてアノ高々と口ひげを捩り上げた戯け顔抜きには彼の作品を見られなくなってしまったのと対照的に、マグリットの場合は生涯匿名的な小市民を「演じ続ける」ことによって、自身の描くモチーフの匿名性を守ろうとしたのではないのか。自分はそこに、≪日付絵画≫の「日付」の匿名性を担保するために自らの存在を公的な場から一切掻き消そうとした河原温の試みをも重ねて見てしまう。(しかしマグリットにしろ、河原にしろ、それでもなお我々は、彼らの作品に、あるいは匿名性を守ろうとする彼らの努力それ自体にも、彼らの「内面」や「人生」や「人間」を見てしまうのだが、そのことはまた別の大きな問題となるので今回は踏み込まない。)

 では、なぜそこまでしてマグリットは自身の描写を匿名性へと純化させようとしたのか?
 思うに彼は、自身の絵に描かれるモチーフを「言葉」のレベルにまで還元しようとしたのではないだろうか。つまりマグリットが描くリンゴは、最終的には「リンゴ」というカタカナ三文字でできた単語以上の意味を持たない境地をこそが目指されているように思えるのである。イメージと言葉(単語)が限りなく近づく地点、マグリットの描写が目指しているものはそれなのではないか。

 絵と言葉が組み合わされるとき、それを単純な「絵=視覚的イメージ」と「言葉=言語的要素」の掛け合わせであると峻別して考えるのは浅薄に過ぎよう。文字の起源に絵があるように絵のなかにも言葉の要素が潜んでいるし、言葉によって視覚的なイメージを記述することもできる。
 たとえばクレーの絵のなかに我々が「具象的な要素」として認める鳥や魚や動物や人や建物などは、限りなく象形文字に近い。クレーの絵の神髄は色彩や線描による非言語領域の表現にこそあるが、そのなかに辛うじて残る言語的な要素が、それら「言葉では表現できないもの」とタイトル(言葉による表現)を架橋しているのである。
 クレーの絵における具象的な要素と違って、マグリットの絵の描写は、視覚的には象形文字とはかけ離れているように見える。しかしその実質は、記号的な表象という意味において象形文字にきわめて近いのである。つまりマグリットの描写は、物象の「絵」としての視覚的なイメージを保ったまま、そのdescriptionを言葉(単語)と等しいものにしようとしているのだと考えられるのである。
 その上でマグリットは「言葉」に等しくなった「絵」を使って、言語的な構成による表現(つまり「詩」だ!)を試みようとしているのではないだろうか。象形文字のようにその外観を記号のように単純化することなく視覚的には「絵」としてのイメージの強度を保ったまま、言語的な構成に類する表現、つまり「詩」的な表現を画面上で実現することを目指したと考えることはできないか。

 そう考えると、マグリットの絵のタイトルが「突飛なもの」ばかりであることも頷けるのだ。「リンゴ」という文字に等しいような描写で描かれたリンゴに「リンゴ」というタイトル付けても、まさに屋上屋を架す以外のなにものでもないからである。当然そこではなんの「変化」も起こらない。
 つまりマグリットの絵において「描かれたモチーフとは何の関係もなさそうな突飛な言葉」がタイトルとして選ばれるのは必然なのである。専門用語を使うのが好きな手合いならば、そのことをマグリットの絵の基本技法でもある「デペイズマン」という言葉を使って説明するだろう。
 しかしデペイズマンは通常、「文脈の異なる意外なものの組み合わせ(ミシンと蝙蝠傘との解剖台の上での偶然の出会い、のように)」として説明される手法だが、単に文脈の違う意外なタイトルを付けたという“だけ”ならば、それはあまりに記号的な所作である。少なくともそれだけでは「詩」は生まれそうもない(と自分は思う)。

 たとえば今回の展覧会の出品作のなかに、壁紙の図柄ように深みのない絵柄で描かれた青空の絵に≪呪い≫というタイトルが付けられた作品がある。もちろん見るものは「呪い」というタイトルを知って仰天する。「なぜ“青空(以外のいかなる要素もそこには存在しない)”を描いた絵が“呪い”なんだろう?」と、そう疑問に思う。一般的なデペイズマンの効果の説明では、この「仰天」や「疑問を持って絵を違った目で見る」などの行為を以ってして、その効果とするのだろう。しかし自分はそれだけではまだ不十分だと考える。その程度のダイナミズムでは「詩」は生じないのだ。
 自分がマグリットの絵に「詩」を感じるのは、この≪呪い≫というタイトルが、「青空」に含まれるなんらかの「呪い」性を言い当てているように感じるからなのだ。この「言い当てているように感じる」という感覚こそが決定的に重要である。
 クレーの絵の場合は、タイトルによって名指されることで抽象的な図柄が像を結ぶ「言われてみると、そう見えてくる」という意識の動きだったのに対し、マグリットの場合は、まったく無関係に思われた二つの事象間に存在する関連性が「言われてみると、見えてくる」というかたちで意識の変化が起こるのだ。つまり「言い当てかた」や「見えてくるもの」こそ異なるものの、「言われてみると、見えてくる」という意識の動き自体は双方ともに共通するのである。
 マグリットの絵においてもその二つの事象が、ただちには連想が結びつかない距離を隔てたものであることが重要だ。その飛距離の大きさこそが、意識の変化のダイナミズムを生むからである。すぐに連想が働くもの同士のあいだでは、この「動き」は起こらない。青空を描いた絵に「夏」とか「夢」とか「青春」といったタイトルが付いていても、「いままで見えていなかったものが、突然見えてくる」ような意識の変化は生じ難いのだ。
 ちなみに今回の展覧会には≪呪い≫と同じ描写で青空を描いた絵がもう一点出品されていて、その作品のタイトルが他でもない≪夏≫なのである。しかしこの絵は≪呪い≫と違って青空だけが全面に描かれているのではない。窓の並んだ石造りの建物の前に掲げられた旗の部分の空間が刳り貫かれたようにして青空が描かれているのだ。この場合、タイトルの≪夏≫は、旗の内側の青空だけに共鳴する。というのも、背景に描かれている建物は並んだどの窓からも僅かに開いたカーテン越しに暗黒の室内を覗かせているだけで人の気配を感じさせず、旗を掲げる鉄製のポールも強い陰影の垂直線が無造作に画面の中央を分割するかたちで描かれていて、そのどちらもおよそ「夏」のイメージとは程遠い不穏な空気を漂わせているからである。もしこの刳り貫かれたような旗の内側の「青空」がなければ、この絵と≪夏≫というタイトルとを架橋する何らかの共通項を見つけ出すのは困難になるだろう。その場合は当然「言われてみると、見えてくる」という意識の動きは働かないのである。
 つまり超現実的に旗の内側に刳り貫かれた青空が、「夏」の持つ二面性を見るものに気付かせるための架け橋としての役割を担っているのだ。そして背後の陰鬱な建物や鉄製のポールによる不自然な画面構成が、漂白されたようにクリアーな「夏」や「青空」の、その裏側に潜む「不吉さ」を見るものに暗示させるのである。人によっては、そこから過去の夏に起こった個人的な、あるいは歴史的な暗い出来事が思い起こされるかもしれない。

 つまり重要なのはズレと合致(言い当て)が同時に起こることなのである。ズレがないところには「言い当てている」という感覚は起こりえない。ズレから合致への「飛躍」こそが肝要なのだ。
 ミシェル・フーコーが論稿のネタにしたことでも有名な「これはパイプではない」の絵(≪イメージの裏切り≫:今回の展覧会では同じシリーズの1952年のドローングが出品されている)も、「パイプ」以外の何物にも見えないパイプの絵に「これはパイプではない」という文字が書き加えられることによって大いなるズレ(矛盾)が生じる。しかし「これは“パイプの絵”であって、本物のパイプではない(すなわちイメージと言葉は一致している)」というそれまで見えていなかった事実に気付くことで、意識が大きく動くのである。
 ≪イメージの裏切り≫はマグリットがイメージと言葉の問題に直截的に取り組んでいた時期の作品で、ややもすると他の代表作に比べ観念的すぎる気もするが、しかしそこで起こる意識の変化のダイナミズムが作品構造の「理屈っぽさ」を凌駕してイメージの広がりを生むのだろう。(ちなみにこの「これはパイプではない」は、自分には磔刑図でキリストの頭上に掲げられた罪状書きの「ユダヤの王」の文字を思い起こさせる。すなわち言葉とイメージが単純な合致の関係ではなく捩じれた位相にあるさまが、千年以上に渡る西洋絵画の歴史のなかでおそらくもっとも多く描かれてきたであろうモチーフのなかで示され続けてきたという事実をも、この絵が示しているように感じてしまうのである。)

 では、異なる事象間に潜む関連性を「言い当てている」という感覚が、マグリットの絵においては具体的に「詩」とどう結び付いているのか?
 自分の感覚を精査してみるに、マグリットの作品の多くでは、絵とタイトルの結合によって起こる意識の変化のなかで「物語的なもの」の発動が起こっているような気がする。たとえば刳り貫かれた旗の内側に青空を描いた≪夏≫では、「夏」という言葉と背景に描かれている陰鬱な建物や旗のポールによる不穏な垂直線が醸しだす「不吉さ」が結びついたとき、自分の意識のなかでは戦時下や独裁政権のもとで抑圧された街を舞台にした物語のようなものが展開し始めるのである。
 このとき重要なのは、モチーフとして超現実的な光景が描かれているから物語的なものが読み取れるということではないということだ。あくまでそれは異質な要素のぶつかり合いを経てそれまで見えていなかった関連性が「見えてくる」という意識の動きを契機に発動するものなのである。そしてそれは自分にとって、詩を読む際に感じる言葉と言葉の意外な結びつきが、それまでの文脈上は見えていなかったその言葉の新たな意味や予想外のイメージの広がりを展開をしていくさまに酷似しているように思えるのだ。
 マグリットの絵といえばその鮮烈なイメージこそが誰もが思い浮かべる最大の特徴であるが、作品から得られるイメージの広がりは、実は最初のビジュアル的なインパクトに直接続いていくものではない。タイトルによる混乱を経たのちに、始めは見えていなかったものがゆっくりと見え出し、第一印象で受けた衝撃とはまた別な世界が想像力によって見るものの意識のなかでじわじわと広がっていく。それは「ビジュアル的」というよりはむしろ「文学的」なものであり、さらに言えば「詩」的なものなのだ。そこで展開されるイメージの内容が詩的なのではなく、そのイメージを発動させる構造が「詩」的なのである。


 以上、マグリットの作品を「詩」であると感じた自分の直感を検証してきたわけだが、最後にマグリットの描写についてもう少し触れておきたい。
 マグリットの描写が、「絵」としての視覚的イメージを保ったまま、そのdescriptionを「言葉(単語)」のレベルにまで近付けて、言語的な構成による実験(「詩」的な表現)を画面上で実現するための術となっていることはこれまで述べてきたとおりだ。
 しかし自分は、ことマグリットの描写に関しては、それだけの役割では終わらないとも思っているのである。

 見るものを一瞬で引きつける卓越したビジュアルを持つマグリットの絵は、その複製イメージがあらゆるメディアを通して世に流通しまくっている。そして絵画的な「深み」をイメージ性の強さが凌駕するその絵は、絵画作品としては他のどの画家の絵よりも実作と複製の垣根が低いようにも見える。実作を見ないでも十分「わかった気」になれる絵の代表例だと言ってもいいかもしれない。事実ここまでしてきた説明も、そのことを裏付ける方向で機能するだろう。マグリットの描写が描かれたモチーフの「概念化」を果たす機能だけを担っているならば、作品理解のためにはあとはその概念化された事象の組み合わせが把握できればいいわけで、それは複製図版で十分事足りるからだ。つまりは印字された文字の連なりから「詩」を感じ取ることができるのと同じ理屈である。
 ところがマグリット展の会場から家に戻り、買ってきたカタログの図版を見ていると、なんだか少し物足らない気がするのだ。会場で見たはずのナニカが、そこには欠けているのである。思い起こしてみれば、過去にマグリットの実作を見たときはいつも同じような感慨を抱いていた気がする。十分「わかってる」と思っていたはずのマグリットの絵が、実物を見ると意外にもその印象を大きく更新される(そしてしばらく経つと、また氾濫する既存のイメージに浸食されて忘れる)といったことを繰り返してきたのだった。
 つまり深みのない描画と概念化されたモチーフによる構成が主と思われているマグリットの絵画は、意外と一次的にしか得られない情報が多い絵なのである。そして、その多くはあの描写にこそ因っているのだ。

 たしかにマグリットは、描写から特定の人格の想起や曖昧な解釈の可能性を排除するために、あの平板な描法を採用したのだろう。つまり理屈から言えば、それは人間性を排除した冷たい描写になってしかるべきなのだ。ところが実際に作品を見てみると、意外とそこからは人の血が通った「あたたかみ」のようなものが感じられるのである。余計な感情を削ぎ落とした無機的な描写をこそが目指されているはずなのだが、案外作者は楽しんで描いているのではないかと思うような、そんな感覚さえ抱かされるのだ。
 マグリットの油彩画の描画法は、古典絵画のように人の手の痕跡を消した、素人にはどうやって描いたのか見当もつかないような技巧的な複雑さはなく、むしろ最短距離で最終イメージに辿り着こうとする簡易さこそが特徴である。しかしその簡易的な描写のなかに、描くことによってイメージがそこに生まれていくことへの驚きが見出せるように感じるのだ。「絵」というものが生まれるその瞬間への驚きと喜びが、その「どう描いているのかわかる」描写によって見るものに伝わるのである。このニュアンスは実作を前にしないとなかなかわからない。
 そしてそのことは、マグリットの絵に描かれるモチーフが個別的な要素を削ぎ落とされ概念のレベルにまで純化されるのと同じように、マグリットの絵を「絵」や「イメージ」へと還元するのである。一見「だまし絵」のように見えるマグリットの絵が、実際は「だまし絵についての絵」であるように、マグリットの作品の本質はその自己言及性にある。つまりマグリットは絵を描くのと同時に、「絵というもの」をも描いているのだ。
 そのためマグリットの絵画は、画面内に描かれたイメージだけではなく、フレームの外側の世界における作品本体の存在自体も、どこか「普通の絵画」としてこの世界に収まるにはそぐわないような居心地の悪さがある。その感覚は描かれた超現実的なモチーフへのめまいに由来するのではなく、我々が個別の作品としてのマグリットの絵を見るのと同時に、「イメージというもの」や「絵画というもの」の不思議をそこに見てしまうめまいから来るのだろう。

 ≪呪い≫の作品の青空が「呪い」という言葉と結びつくのは、壁紙の図柄のように単純化されて描かれたあの絵の青空自体に「呪い」を感じさせる何かが潜んでいるからである。それは紛れもなく「絵画」的な効果なのだ。つまり我々は「青空」と「呪い」の意外な関連性と同時に、絵画という表現の不思議さ(奥深さ)もまたそこで目にしているのである。それは他の作品にも言えることだろう。
 つまりマグリットの作品は、やはりどうしようもなく「絵画」なのである。絵画であることを抜きにしてマグリットの絵は語れないのだ。まぁ、当たり前といえば当たり前すぎる結論ではあるが。

 しかしそのことを十分承知した上で、多彩な額縁(今回の展覧会ではいろいろな額縁が見られたが、そのどれもがマグリットの絵に合っていて面白かった)に収められた紛れもない「絵画」が並んだマグリット展の会場風景に、自分は敢えて「“詩”の展覧会」というタイトルを付けてみたくなったのだ。
 そしてそれは「マグリットのタイトル」的な意味においては、それほど的外れなものでもないのではないかと思うのである。



「マグリット展」
国立新美術館(2015年3月25日〜6月29日)
http://magritte2015.jp/
posted by 3 at 18:09| 日記

2015年01月18日

The most uninteresting thing of Takamatsu Jiro's works

I saw the exhibition of「高松次郎ミステリーズ」at The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. In spite of growing the reputation of Takamatsu Jiro in recent years, I hadn't thought his works interesting so much. I expected this exhibition would teach me the appeal of his works, but on the contrary, it was curated as if it intended to intensify my dislike for his works.

The weakest point of Takamatsu's works I think is the tendency that his works tend to look like an illustration of the explanation when he (or someone) puts the words of explanation on them. The more he puts the words of explanation, the more they look like an illustration of explanation. The works of ≪影≫ series, that is the one with the most impressive visual images in Takamatsu's works, is good sample for that. Obviously, they become dull when they are added the words of explanation.
This was what this exhibition did. They considered Takamatsu's works were based on his deep philosophical thoughts, and tried to explain the works along them. I think that is the most effective method to make Takamatsu's works look boring.

I think the Takamatsu's essential nature was an image maker. He had a distinguished talent for creating striking images.
However, his talent as an image maker tends to make his works look as graphic works that are distinguished but shallow. I consider it was his nature as an image maker that required the philosophical thoughts of his works. He needed them for making his works look as art works. The order was the reverse.

It might be due to his talent for creating striking images that his works tend to look like the illustration of explanation. They tended to look like the illustration for something essentially.
I think Takamatsu himself was aware of the weakness in some degree. If there is something that I take some interest in Takamatsu's works, it is to find his struggle against the limit of his ability.
In fact, we can see his effort to overcome the weakness in some of his works around 1970, for example the work of『石と数字(1969)』 which was made from his action of writing numbers on stones on a riverside. In that work, neither his action nor the stones become the illustration of the explanation, because we can find the explanation of this works not outside of the work but inside of his action itself.
And the summits of his effort to overcome the limit are the works of 『日本語の文字(1970)』and 『英語の単語(1970)』, or ≪この七つの文字≫ and ≪THESE THREE WORDS≫. In these works, the visual images and the words became one. I think it was the peak of his entire works. He had reached something at this point.

After reaching the summits, Takamatsu began paintings. It is difficult to interpret Takamatsu's painting works of his later years.
My view is this. In the beginning, his words and thoughts were the mere explanations of his works. The relation between the words and the images was an accessory one. However, through the struggle to overcome the limit, he bridged the gap between the words and images and they united into one at the works of ≪この七つの文字≫ and ≪THESE THREE WORDS≫. He reached the peak of something at this point.
After that, I think that he began to try to think by painting. He might have tried to enter a new phase of relationship between words and images. In that try, the words of explanation were not the things that existed outside of the works in advance, but they were the things that he would find through painting the works. It was not an uncommon thing but an common act that every painters are doing ordinarily. However, the process he could reach the state was uncommon and interesting.

The view of the curators of this exhibition was contrary. They emphasized the consistency of his works. (It was reflected in the design of the floor plan of the exhibition.) They said the Takamatsu's paintings are different from the common paintings. They brought the book of Lao-tze from the Takamatsu's book shelf and explained his paintings were based on his thought that was affected by Lao-tze. I think it was the most boring way of seeing his paintings. In that view, the paintings go back to the illustration of the thoughts. The curators obviously can't see the flow of his works.
Of course, the view could be the explanation of the reason why the Takamatsu's paintings are boring. I think that the reason is because he could not get away from the thinking with words completely. However, if there is something that I take some interest in Takamatsu's paintings, it is to find his struggle against the limit of his ability in them.

I admit that Takamatsu was a distinguished artist. I admit that he had a splendid talent for making striking images and his nature as an artist was unique.
However, I don't think what he thought was so unique. It's true that they look profound and difficult, but I don't think they are so original compared with his works themselves. If I gave the most uninteresting thing of Takamatsu's works, it is his thoughts.
Therefore, hypothesizing that Takamatsu's works are based on the deep philosophical thoughts that are as mysterious as we hardly understand and trying to see the works through searching for the answer of the mysteries is the worst way of seeing his works. And I think that is the reason why this exhibition was boring.



「高松次郎ミステリーズ」
東京国立近代美術館(2014年12月2日〜2015年3月1日)
http://www.momat.go.jp/Honkan/takamatsujiro/

posted by 3 at 18:01| Diary

2015年01月11日

Books without words

The first exhibition I saw this year was「イエラ・マリ展‐字のない絵本の世界」at Itabashi Art Museum. It was a wonderful exhibition, so I think it will be a good year for me.
In the exhibition, I enjoyed the Iela Mari's elaborate drawing skill from the original illustrations of her picture books. Nowadays, we tend to use computer graphic softwares to draw such kind of illustration. After all, some of them are simple colored circles. They look as exact as a circle that is drawn by computer, but they are never the same as the one. Unlike a circle drawn by computer, the Mari's hand drawn circles include vast information. We can sense it even from the printed books. I think picture book without words is the best media for recognizing the kind of excellence of her illustrations.

In the exhibition, I could see not only Mari's picture books but also many others' picture books without words in the world: from the classics, for example Bruno Murari, Anno Mitsumasa, Dick Bruna, Edward Gorey, Lynd Ward and so on, to many fantastic picture books that I had never seen. I wanted to bring all the books back to my home. It was like a treasure land.
Books without words are the special things for me. When I was a kid, from 12 to 15 years old, I lived in Milan because of my father's business. Owing to lack of language skill, I could not read any Italian books in spite of the fact that I was very fond of books. (Language ability have always been the weak point in my life.) However, one day I found a picture book that had no words. There were quite a few cartoons and picture books without words in bookstores in Milan. Although I didn't read the Iela Mari's picture books, I was really into the world of the wordless books. My most favorite artist in those days was Guillermo Mordillo. His book was also featured in this exhibition.

I can't imagine any other media that is able to include such vast world like the books without words. It is as limitless as the universe. I consider it comes from the feature of book. Neither silent films nor a piece of picture is comparable to it. Only the books without words can hold such a limitless possibility. They look like the existence that transcends the laws of this world.
Today, we are living in the complicated world. In our time, I consider it is very important to avoid becoming a fundamentalist, because there are so many persons who believe different kind of creed. One firmly believes that freedom of expression should be respected above all else, but the other believes the religious faith overwhelms it. It is difficult to find a settlement when different creeds conflict. It goes without saying that violence is the worst solution. On the other hand, insisting on own creed will not reach any solution. It is very difficult to keep own faith with respecting others' faith. Therefore our world is filled with the huge amount of meaningless violence and hates.
In such a situation, I think only the things like the books without words might be able to solve the conflicts. This idea has no foundation, but I sensed it when I saw the Iela Mari's and others' picture books without words.



「イエラ・マリ展 ‐ 字のない絵本の世界」
板橋区立美術館(2014年11月22日〜2015年1月12日)
http://www.itabashiartmuseum.jp/exhibition/ex141122.html

posted by 3 at 19:08| Diary

2014年12月31日

TOP10 of the exhibitions I saw in 2014

As usual, this is the ranking based on the strength of the impression I got.
It means this is nothing but a diary.


TOP10

1位:「小川千甕展」福島県立美術館(10-11月)
2位:「パランプセスト―重ね書きされた記憶/記憶の重ね書き vol.4 小林耕平」gallery αM(10-11月)URL
3位:「村越としや写真展 火の粉は風に舞い上がる」吉祥寺美術館(9-11月)URL
4位:「ヴァロットン展」三菱一号館美術館(6-9月)URL
5位:「人間国宝展」東京国立博物館(1-2月)URL
6位:「第6回恵比寿映像祭 トゥルー・カラーズ」東京都写真美術館(2月)URL
7位:「ジョルジョ・デ・キリコ−変遷と回帰」パナソニック汐留ミュージアム(10-12月)URL
8位:「オルセー美術館展 印象派の誕生」国立新美術館(7-10月)URL
9位:「岩熊力也展 weight」コバヤシ画廊(1月)で見た映像作品《ハヤサスラヒメ》
10位:「ディスカバー、ディスカバー・ジャパン 「遠く」へ行きたい」東京ステーションギャラリー(9-11月)URL



The other impressive exhibitions(seen order)

・「アンディ・ウォーホル展 永遠の15分」森美術館(2-5月)URL
・「ヴォルフガング・ティルマンス Affinity」WAKO WORKS OF ART(1-3月)URL
・「さわひらき Under the Box, Beyond the Bounds」東京オペラシティアートギャラリー(1-3月)URL
・「柳瀬正夢 1900-1945 時代の光と影を描く」神奈川県立近代美術館葉山(2-3月)URL
・「高柳恵里 油断」上野の森美術館ギャラリー(3月)
・「山岡敏明個展 グチック形態学」ギャラリーハシモト(3-4月)
・「北島敬三“UNTITLED RECORDS”展 Vol.1、Vol.2、Vol.3」photographer's gallery(3-4、7-8、10-11月)URL URL URL
・「所蔵作品展 花」&「所蔵作品展 こども+おとな工芸館 もようわくわく」東京国立近代美術館工芸館(3-6、6-8月)URL URL
・「バルテュス展」東京都美術館(4-6月)URL
・「桑原甲子雄の写真 トーキョー・スケッチ60年」世田谷美術館(4-6月)URL
・「平成26年度第2回所蔵作品展 MOMATコレクション」東京国立近代美術館(6-8月)の第10室の展示 URL
・「不思議な動き キネティック・アート展」損保ジャパン東郷青児美術館(7-8月)URL
・「泥象 鈴木治の世界」東京ステーションギャラリー(7-8月)URL
・「フィオナ・タン まなざしの詩学」東京都写真美術館(7-9月)URL
・「『福田尚代作品集 2001-2013』出版記念展」小出由紀子事務所(11-12月)URL



Bad impression(dare to select)

・「楽園としての芸術」東京都美術館(7-10月)URL




Note


○「小川千甕展」

I found Ogawa Senyo's name for the first time in early summer of this year. It was when I saw one of his bunjin-ga paintings in「平成26年度第2回所蔵作品展 MOMATコレクション」at The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. Actually, I had seen his sketches in the exhibition of「スケッチブックの使い方」at Meguro Museum of Art in 2011, but I didn't memorized his name at that time.
I became fond of his work immediately, so I tried to check out him. I saw an old book of his paintings at a library and I was more fascinated by his works. (I bought the book at a secondhand bookstore on internet later.)
When I was searching Senyo's name on internet, I came across the news that his solo exhibition would be held in Fukushima Prefectural Museum of Art in this autumn. Senyo had not been much famous artist, so this would be his first solo exhibition at a museum.
I was astonished about the chance that I could see his entire works so soon since I got interest in him. I considered this was the destiny. Therefore, I made up my mind I should never miss it, even though usually I seldom go to such a distant place.
After that, I got the information that same exhibition will be held in Tokyo next year, but I did not change my mind. I never travel far unless such a thing happens, so this was a rare case. Actually this was the first time I went to the Tohoku region.
Eventually, the decision was right. It was a splendid exhibition, and the exhibition gallery was approximately three times larger than the gallery of museum where the same exhibition is scheduled to be held in Tokyo. I guess that the exhibition in Tokyo will become the totally different one.
If I mention about dissatisfaction point of this exhibition, I thought that the number of bunjin-ga paintings was few relatively, on the other hand, the ratio of works of the early era seemed a little large. I considered the bunjin-ga paintings of his latter years as Senyo's masterpiece, so I wanted to see them as more as possible.
However, there was the thing that I was able to find only in this composition. That was the consistency through his life as a painter. He was the painter who always enjoyed painting pictures. I could discover the pleasure of painting pictures from any type and any era of his works. That is to say, he could have kept the fresh feeling for painting a picture all his life. I have never seen such a strong stability in other artists. That's what I was most impressed with in this exhibition.



○「パランプセスト―重ね書きされた記憶/記憶の重ね書き vol.4 小林耕平」

It may be incorrect because I have not seen all of Kobayashi Kohei's works, though my view of what he had been doing through his works is as follows.
After the works of monochrome video by surveillance camera, when Kobayashi began to make colored video works that filmed motion of objects in the mid-'00s, I considered that he was trying to convey a thing that is never conveyed to another person. For example, you can never convey a sight you are looking at to another person literally. Expressions about what you are looking at are not identical with what you are looking at. The two always have a difference even if you use any method or any device. No one in the world can convey it. I considered that Kobayashi was trying to convey such a thing through his works.
If he had been trying that, at least, it was amazing that he could convey to me what he was trying for only through the videos. However, it was the fact that what he tried to really convey had not conveyed, yet. In that sense, it was a failure. Hence, my opinion to his work was confused. I could not judge whether I should say his work was interesting or not. For me, suspending the judgment was most suitable attitude to his works.
After that, kobayashi's works was getting complicated steadily. He began to appear on his own works and performed incomprehensible gestures with daily goods. At that point, my view of his works had not changed. I considered that he was still trying to convey the thing which was impossible to convey. He seemed to be trying hard to accomplish it with various way. I thought the trying itself were interesting, but the fact that the trying had not accomplished was still unchanged. The impossible thing was impossible, yet. So, my suspending the judgment of his works also was unchanged. I still could not say whether it was interesting or not.
My confusion plunged into a new stage when another person appeared in kobayashi's works. His name was Yamamoto. On the video, they had incomprehensible conversations about kobayashi's works smoothly. It seemed as if they could communicate with each other. I was astonished because it meant that the thing which was impossible to convey was conveyed to Yamamoto. The fact told that I could not understand what Kobayashi was tying to convey was not because it was the thing which was impossible to convey but just because I was an idiot. Therefore, I felt I was alienated from their conversation.
I think this might be a special feature of kobayashi's works. When I see someone (who mostly seems to be an elite of Contemporary Art or a pedantic person) praises for kobayashi's works passionately, I always feel as if I am told that I am a idiot. That is the same feeling I had received from the conversation between Kobayashi and Yamamoto. Still, for the former, I can comfort myself with thinking the persons who praise kobayashi's works believe only in themselves that they can understand it. However, when it happens in kobayashi's works, I can do nothing but admit that they are able to communicate. It meant that my view of kobayashi's works was mistake fundamentally. Hence, my judgment of his works became more unstable.

The above was my view of kobayashi's works before seeing this exhibition, and I thought kobayashi's works had advanced drastically this time.
The biggest change was that other persons appeared in his videos besides Kobayashi and Yamamoto. Kobayashi and Yamamoto took a role of host, and they tried to make other guests invisible. Therefore they were functioning as a "medium." I think it was the right way. I felt that they functioned in the right way at last.
Their routine conversation, that Kobayashi said to Yamamoto "Hey Yamamoto, I brought such a thing today" and took bizarre objects out every time, looked like a comedy show. The combination of them was similar to a parody of the stereotype of a detective and his buddy, like Poirot and Hastings or Holmes and Watson, or a mad scientist and his assistant. I think it was the right way, too. In a detective story, genuine protagonists ought to be criminals and victims of the crimes. The role of a detective and his buddy is revealing the hidden relationship among them as a "medium." I think it is the similar role of Kobayashi and Yamamoto in the works.
I am sure that looking like a comedy was also the right way for the works. The existence of a protagonist of comedy transforms his surrounding. As a trickster who is free from the common sense, a protagonist of comedy destroys the people's fixed ideas and changes their eyes. This is just the role of Kobayashi.
As for technical side, I thought that the camera work of the videos was very effective. It seemed like an amateur's shooting, and the amateur-like restless camera work was very good. We are apt to try to look for the meaning of the framing when a fixed camera or the author Kobayashi himself shot the video. However, the amateur-like camera work showed the role of Kobayashi and Yamamoto as a "medium" obviously.
The locations of shooting were also seemed to contribute to the success. The Kobayashi previous works' locations, like empty land in suburb where no one is or gallery's white cube room, tended to focus our attention on the meaning of the Kobayashi's acts. In contrast, the locations he chose this time were the tourist spots in Tokyo, and those places were crowded with a lot of people. Such a situation emphasized their role as a "medium" that transforms the surrounding.
I should not forget to mention the effectiveness of the installation. I think that was carefully calculated, and it worked well. For example, when I saw Kobayashi's works in his solo exhibition at YAMAMOTO GENDAI in 2012, I thought that his handmade objects themselves looked like "the works." I am sure that it was not his intention. In contrast, in this exhibition they looked like a kind of "symbol." I considered that they also were functioning in the right way.
The theme "an invisible man" also was effective for this exhibition. The installation was constituted with several videos, and their sounds were mixed with in the room. In the confusion of various sounds and flickering of the videos' lights, I had some moments that I felt as if there was really an invisible man in the gloomy room. It was a strange feeling.
I could not judge whether the thing that is never conveyed was conveyed or not in this exhibition. However, the feeling I got from this exhibition was the thing that I had never known. I felt that I saw the thing that I had never seen before. And this time, my judgment of his works became stable. I am sure it was one of the most outstanding exhibition of Contemporary Art today.



○「村越としや写真展 火の粉は風に舞い上がる」

When I saw Murakoshi Toshiya's photographs for the first time, I felt they were fairly good photographs but I could not get any particular impressions from them. I agreed with they were fine-looking black and white photographs, so I enjoyed seeing them to some extent. However, at the same time, I had some doubts because I could not catch a certain meaning of shooting today's scenery with such a classic style. The feeling to his photographs had not been changed even when I saw the photographs that was shot in his birthplace Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear accident.
For that reason I had not expected so much when I heard about the news that his solo exhibition would be held at Kichijoji Art Museum. After hesitating, finally I dashed into the exhibition at final day.
When I saw the exhibition, I was relieved from the bottom of my heart that I had not missed it. It was a great exhibition. I had not been able to imagine that such a vast world could be appeared in such a small gallery of Kichijoji Art Museum. I had seen some exhibitions that succeeded in making a large world with the effect of installation in art museum galleries this year, for example「第6回恵比寿映像祭 トゥルー・カラーズ」at Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography and「さわひらき Under the Box, Beyond the Bounds」at Tokyo Opera City Art Gallary. Although those art museums are much larger than Kichijoji Art Museum, I felt like the world Murakoshi had made was as large as them, or even larger.
In this exhibition, you could see the photographs that he shot in Fukushima after the nuclear accident. Though, there was no explanation about the photographs in the gallery. I think it was the very right choice that he vanished every words from the gallery. I was overwhelmed by the strength of absence of words.
The installation had been carefully planned, so I felt as if I were reading a novel when I went around the exhibition. In addition, the experience resembled a long journey. I felt like as if it was the travel through the netherworld like Dante's journey in Divine Comedy. Then, a shiver ran down my spine when I realized the fact that "the netherworld" in these photographs actually exists in this world.



○「ヴァロットン展」

This had been the most expected exhibition this year, and eventually, it was more wonderful than I had expected. It was the first exhibition of Felix Vallotton in Japan, and I think that it will be memorized as a historic one.
The gallery of Mitsubishi Ichigokan Museum was suitable for Vallotton's works. It was interesting for me that the Vallotton paintings looked well-matched for the museum's imitation fireplace, in contrast to the Chardin paintings that had never been suited for it when I had seen them at the same place two years ago.
If I could see an exhibition of this level once a year, what a luxurious life it would be!



○「人間国宝展」

My grandfather was a chaser of sword-guards. I heard it from my mother when I was a kid, and I thought that it was ridiculous that he had tried to make a living by making sword-guards after the Meiji period when samurai had already disappeared. I thought that I was able to understood why my grandfather had been in poverty.
Nowadays, I don't think it's ridiculous that someone bets one's life to making sword-guards. On the contrary, I think such a way of life is cool. Why do I think it's cool? It is not because the person makes respectable traditional art works. Rather, it's because the person would try to bet one's life to useless things.
I used to think that the meaning, or raison d'etre, of traditional art is protecting worthy techniques from extermination, but it was misunderstanding. The way of thinking that we need to protect techniques of traditional art from extermination because they are useful for society is tainted by modernism. Rather, they have to be protected because they are useless for modern life. Handing down itself is the value of Tradition. The true value exists in the behavior.
In this world, there are things that can only arise from useless thing. However, it is difficult for human to do a thing without a reason, especially if you would bet your life for it. We are the creature that can't escape from rationality to the end.
Tradition can be a reason, or an excuse, at the situation. I think it might be the real value of Tradition. In the first place, Kogei is the art that consists of an excuse. In my opinion, the essence of Kogei is the fact that they are at once art works and articles of utility. In other words, the difference between Kogei and Fine Art is presence or absence of utility. However in that, the "utility" is an excuse basically. Nobody really use a living national treasure making bowl for everyday meal. Most of the time, they are made not for using but for seeing. In other words, they are made for beauty.
However, making beautiful things for enjoying beauty is a rational behavior. And a beauty within rationality has a limit. Therefore, in order to exceed the limit, we have to insist obstinately that thay are made for using. When using is the top priority of the objects, beauty is an addition. In that situation, we consider that it is ridiculous that a person would bet his life to pursuing beauty because that is merely a secondary thing. This is the very reason that Kogei needs "utility" as a formality. In other words, it means that the most important thing of Kogei exists only out of rationality.
In this exhibition, I could find that the concept of Tradition could be the most powerful excuse for a person who devotes oneself to pursuing an irrational thing. It can be solid basis for the creation. I think that it is much difficult for an artist of Fine Art to get such solid basis. Though, there is a reason that artists of traditional Kogei need such a strong basis.
I saw an interview video at the exhibition. In the video, a potter, who succeeded the master name which had been passed down from generation to generation for 400 years, said he had pursued a peculiar red all his life. He said that the pursuing had been handed down from his predecessors, and it would not be completed during his era. It would be passed down to his successor.
Of course it looks a ridiculous thing that a potter clan had devoted their lives to making a peculiar red of ceramics for hundreds of years. However, there is the thing that nothing but such a way can create it. That is something beyond the value of this world.
I could see such a thing in this exhibition. Everyone is astonished by the ultimate craftsmanship of their works, but it is only surface. The soul of their works lurked under the superhuman craftsmanship. It was beyond forms. I felt like it was a kind of philosophy. That is the thing not easy to be realized normally. However, this exhibition gave a good opportunity to find it in spite of the popular taste one.
On the other hand, some might criticize their works as far from the actuality, like I regarded my grandfather's job as ridiculous. I can understand such a opinion to a certain degree. I agree half of it. I was impressed deeply by their work truly, but at the same time, I felt something that I could not swallow completely remained.
Nevertheless, it is true that I envied them a little that because they had such a strong basis like Tradition for pursuing irrational things.



○「第6回恵比寿映像祭 トゥルー・カラーズ」

The exhibition of 恵比寿映像祭 is good every year. Above all, this year's exhibition was particularly splendid. The works made the theme of the exhibition stable, and the theme enhanced the works. I consider it was like a model of good exhibition.
The feeling as if I had traveled to every corner of the world still remains on me. (I wrote the details on Twitter. )



○「ジョルジョ・デ・キリコ−変遷と回帰」

I had not known that Giorgio de Chirico's paintings are so interesting. Especially, Neo Metafisica paintings are too interesting. In spite of kitsch, they have true aura of painting. It's very strange.
This year I saw several original works of Paul Noble at last in the exhibition of「プライベート・ユートピア」at Tokyo Station Gallery. I guess that he was influenced by de Chirico. Is it correct?



○「オルセー美術館展 印象派の誕生」

I used to hate the exhibitions which are titled as「○○美術館展」, because in general they are crowded as hell and the curations are poor as a paper tiger. However, although being crowded as hell has not changed, as concerns the curation, sometimes I run across the good one these days.
Above all, this exhibition was superior by far. Especially the room that exhibited the landscape paintings which the Impressionists, Pissarro, Cezanne, Sisley, Monet and Renoir, had painted in 1870's was really overwhelming. I could distinguish each personality and essence of them well.
It was good that not only the Impressionists' paintings but also the works of academic painters of the same era were exhibited together. As a result I could image how the Impressionists' works had been looked in that era.
I could learn a lot in this exhibition.



○「岩熊力也展 weight」で見た映像作品《ハヤサスラヒメ》

I did not think that the solo exhibition of Iwakuma Rikiya at Kobayashi Gallery was a splendid one. I thought some works were not so good and the installation was a little messy.
However, one of his works enthralled me. It was the oil painting animation which was titled《ハヤサスラヒメ》.
The theme of the animation was the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. I thought the depiction of the animation was a little too sentimental and the editing was not so sophisticated. However, it was the first time I could feel sympathy for a painter's work that dealt with the Great Earthquake as a theme.
In the animation, he synchronized the public great disaster with personal memories. When I saw it, I thought it was just what I had felt in those days. I had felt as if the disaster had happened as a result of my sin. The animation depicted such a vague feeling well.
I felt that the author had made himself defenseless in the work, and I consider it was the factor of success. It seemed a little too defenseless, but it brought the good result in the end.
On the other hand, I was not impressed so much by his other works that were historical people portraits painted on white dresses, because I felt that he had created them by more theory than heart. I even felt them a little pedantic. I think they lacked something《ハヤサスラヒメ》had.



○「ディスカバー、ディスカバー・ジャパン 「遠く」へ行きたい」

This exhibition consisted of two floors. The upper floor was very lively. The gallery was filled with plenty of posters and goods of the Discover Japan campaign. The TV Commercial of the campaign was being played without a break, and I almost went crazy by being forced to listen to the CM song endlessly.
Every catch phrase on the posters made me laugh because they were outdated and silly. However, after laughing, I shuddered because I had realized that they were no different from advertising today at all. We are definitely still surrounded by such silly phrases.
When we notice it, we understand that this display might be a caricature of today's world. The method to urge people to go to one direction without thinking has not changed. If you realized that, you would notice the resemblance between the main catch phrase of the campaign「美しい日本と私」and the current prime minister Abe Shinzo's slogan「美しい国」.
I thought it was interesting that this exhibition depicted the era, 70's in Japan, as a kind of dystopia. I have seen several exhibition that review Japan's postwar era in recent years. Most of them may have intended to criticize the present through the past, but I sometimes felt like their attitude toward each particular era was stereotyped. That is, the era before and during the war tend to be depicted as total darkness, and 50's-70's political movements tend to be depicted ideally. But, was it true? I can't help doubting things which described with a one-sided view.
For that reason, it was new that this exhibition made me feel the 70's as a kind of dystopia. What is more, it was lively dystopia! It raised credibility that it did as whistle blowing from the inside of JR.
However, the display on the lower floor was somber in contrast to the upper floor. There were photographs that was taken for Fine Art rather than a commercial in the same period including the works of a photographer who had opposed the Discover Japan campaign. I thought that the curator of this exhibition had intended to show the fact that there had been the cool people who had not been manipulated by the mass campaign in those days. If that's so, the comparison was too simple. More than anything, the display was so somber! It was obvious that the upper floor was far more fun than the lower one. I was disappointed at the latter half of the exhibition.
At a later date, when I read the catalog of the exhibition, I found the curator's intention had been different. He had not intended to praise the people who had opposed the Discover Japan campaign. Rather, he criticized them for their rough argument. In that case, we could interpret the somber display on the lower floor as metaphor of their feeble opposition. This may be reading too much into it, but we might be able to see criticism of the stereotyped leftist opposition against power from it.
Though, the curator did not deny the whole of their opposition stance but criticized the flaw of the argument. To the campaign, he did not take a simple stance, too. I was able to see his critical stance to the campaign from the display, but at the same time he countered the rough criticism against the campaign in the catalog. Thanks to staying neutral, I think he could propound a lot of issues from this exhibition. It is a problem that we can't understand them without reading the catalog, but I think it was an unique exhibition in this year.



○「アンディ・ウォーホル展 永遠の15分」

This was the largest Andy Warhol exhibition I have seen in recent years. I was able to find new understanding by seeing the whole of his works at a time. For example, one of the lessons I got from this exhibition is below.
"You can't get a new thing without throwing away something. To get a big thing, you must throw away something big you already have."



○「ヴォルフガング・ティルマンス Affinity」

To tell the truth, I had not been crazy about Tillmans' works. I felt his works smart, but I had never been impressed deeply.
However, I was able to understand his greatness in this exhibition at last. I had felt his installation as some kind of fashion before, but in this exhibition, I could feel some kind of philosophy from the perfection of it.



○「さわひらき Under the Box, Beyond the Bounds」

The most impressive exhibition of Sawa Hiraki was the one I saw his works for the first time in 2003. And I had never been impressed more deeply in his exhibition since then.
However, I met his most splendid exhibition at last. In this exhibition, I could feel the whole of the gallery as a work. I felt as if I was journeying inside of a music box. Especially, the new work titled "Envelope" which was placed near the last part was amazing. At that place, after journeying through the exhibition, you should become aware for the first time that the world has turned over. When I became aware of it, I really shuddered.



○「柳瀬正夢 1900-1945 時代の光と影を描く」

This was a good opportunity to see the whole of the works of Yanase Masamu. I could see how talented he had been in his youth, and also could see how distinctly the talent had vanished after he had been arrested in violation of the Public Security Preservation Laws when he was 32 years old.
What a mysterious thing human talent is! And how closely a person's talent and the times he lives relate!



○「高柳恵里 油断」

I saw two superb exhibition of Takayanagi Eri last year. The one was exhibited in an interior shop and the other was exhibited in one of the vast gallery of MOT. I thought that both spaces were difficult to exhibit, but both exhibition astonished me because of the high level installations. She transformed those spaces quietly but drastically.
And this year Takayanagi exhibited in the annex gallery of The Ueno Royal Museum. I thought that the space was more difficult to exhibit than former two. However, she transformed the space more drastically and more quietly. I took my cap off to her high skill.



○「山岡敏明個展 グチック形態学」

I saw this artist's works for the first time, and I felt empathy for his energy for endless drawing. I could feel as much as if it were my own energy. Feeling the empathy so strong, I was about to buy one of his works when I changed my mind and gave up. In any case, he was the most impressive artist among the ones whose works I saw for the first time this year.
Among the exhibition I saw at the same gallery,「山陽介 小屋に日が出る おはよう」was also an impressive one. I had seen his solo exhibition last year and I thought it was interesting, and this year's exhibition was more interesting than that.



○「北島敬三“UNTITLED RECORDS”展 Vol.1、Vol.2、Vol.3」

The exhibition of Vol.1 and Vol.2 shocked me. However, when I saw the exhibition of Vol.3, I had a little concern. Will it be continued after another 17 times without changing significantly?
I think that I will be unable to evaluate the series until I will have seen the whole of them.



○「所蔵作品展 花」&「所蔵作品展 こども+おとな工芸館 もようわくわく」

Nowadays, I look forward to see an exhibition of the Crafts gallery when I go to The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. In spite of the usual museum collection exhibitions and the trashy titles, these exhibitions were excellent.



○「バルテュス展」

Maybe I should have put this exhibition into the top 10 list. It was true that I had enjoyed seeing plenty of Balthus's works at a time.
However, unlike Vallotton, it was not the first Balthus exhibition I had seen, so it can't be helped that the impression tends to fade relatively. In addition to that, I could find no particular thing besides the large number of the works in this exhibition. Though the large number of Balthus's works itself is an amazing thing, of course.
Being impressed strongly, I determined to revisit the exhibition when I was seeing it, but after all I did not.



○「桑原甲子雄の写真 トーキョー・スケッチ60年」

I once saw the group exhibition that showed Kuwabara Kineo's photographs and Araki Nobuyoshi's photographs together at the Setagaya art museum. At that time, I was surprised that their photographs looked so different. It was the difference of recognizing of the date of the scenes in their photographs. In the Kuwabara's photographs, I could distinguish the date of the photographed scenes well. In contrast, I could not say when a Araki photo had been shot, because even his photographs that were shot recently looked retro as if they were shot in old times. The theme of the exhibition was "Tokyo", so I could see the changing of times in Tokyo on the Kuwabara's photos, but I felt as if time had stopped in the Araki's photos. At that time, I thought it was due to the Araki's nature. Looking timeless is one of the feature of Araki's photos.
However, when I saw this Kuwabara's exhibition this year at the same museum, I realized I had been wrong. It was not only due to Araki's nature but also due to Kuwabara's nature. The Kuwabara's talent of capture of times was outstanding. No one can photograph the distinct atmosphere of each of the times like him. When I saw this exhibition, I felt like as if I was traveling through time in Tokyo.



○「平成26年度第2回所蔵作品展 MOMATコレクション」の第10室の展示

As mentioned above, thanks to this exhibition I went to Fukushima to see the Ogawa Senyo's exhibition. In addition to the Senyo's bunjin-ga painting, I could see Yasuda Yukihiko's《六歌仙》and Tuchida Bakusen's sketchbooks.



○「不思議な動き キネティック・アート展」

Before I saw this exhibition, I had thought it was sort of a summer vacation program for children. However, it was a very scholarly exhibition. Of course many children were enjoying the moving objects, but not only that, it was also the exhibition that introduced the overseas minor art movement that was difficult to see in Japan normally. In that sense, this exhibition was in the same category of「オランダ・ハーグ派展」, which introduced Hague School, and「トスカーナと近代絵画」, which introduced Italian modern paintings in Toscana including Macchiaioli, that I had seen at the same museum this year and last year. It was a good opportunity to know the movement of Italian kinetic art.
In addition to this, I felt that the first exhibition room that displayed Op art works was very stylish. It was the first time that I felt Op art paintings so cool. It was so comfortable, so I felt as if I could stay in the room forever.
That is to say, this was the scholarly, enjoyable and stylish exhibition.



○「泥象 鈴木治の世界」

Good installation. And it was good for me to find that Suzuki's ceramic works were related with words closely.



○「フィオナ・タン まなざしの詩学」

Before I saw this exhibition, I had seen Fiona Tan's works in the exhibition of「ゴー・ビトゥイーンズ」at Mori Art Museum and her solo exhibition at WAKO WORKS OF ART. I thought both of them were uninteresting, so I had not expected this exhibition at all. However, it was splendid.
I think the success resulted from the good curation. It was the right choice that they cut down to 4 works for the gallery and added two early film works for the theater. Both films were very impressive. I had been thinking about words through this year, but this exhibition reminded me of the importance of thinking about images.



○「『福田尚代作品集 2001-2013』出版記念展」

I thought that Fukuda had changed. Maybe she had completed the decade works and entered the new stage. Her new works made me feel as if the author's existence had become more transparent. I thought that she put herself to a role of filter that transfers things of this world to another world. I felt like she had reached the point that she could accept the role naturally after had gone through the decades of struggle.
Her display in the exhibition of「開館20周年記念 MOTコレクション特別企画 コンタクツ」with Giuseppe Penone was also splendid. It consisted of her old works but I felt like they adapted themselves to this world naturally more than before. I had seen the author's conflict with the world in them before, but it seemed to have been sublimated in the new installation.

The exhibition of「開館20周年記念 MOTコレクション特別企画 コンタクツ」itself was a good program. I enjoyed the combination of the Japanese younger artists' works and the old master's works.
The most interesting pair for me was Ishida Hisashi and Sam Francis. Both of them is the artist I don't like so much. Especially, I have never once thought Ishida's works interesting. I didn't know why I was not able to feel any interest from his works.
However, I found the reason when I saw the comparison of their works. To put it briefly, I realized that Ishida's drawings were drawn for effects of film eventually. I felt as if he had drawn them by calculating back from a forecast of finished film. I didn't think the Sam Francis giant paintings good at all, but they had been painted for the paintings at least. Comparing their works, the difference was obvious. Thanks to this exhibition, I could realize it at last.



●「楽園としての芸術」

I am in two minds whether to write about this exhibition or not. I am afraid to hurt someone whom I don't need to hurt and I don't want to waste my time for it. However, my intuition tell me that I should write down about it. It says I should write down the uneasy feeling that I felt in this exhibition.
The exhibition consisted of two floors, and showed the works of two studio for persons with intellectual disabilities in each floor.
The uneasy feeling I got was caused in mainly the lower floor. The works of a studio for persons with Down's syndrome were displayed there. I happened to listen to a talk of the organizer of this studio on the radio some years ago. At that time, I was impressed by her talk about activity of the studio, and I wished I would be able to see their works someday.
However, when I saw the works actually, I didn't have a good impression. I could not find something outstanding from them. In my eyes, they were not so much different from ordinary children's paintings.
Of course the reason I could not understand their works' value might be caused by my fault. It may be because I have no sense of beauty or my mind is too dirty to feel it. However, apart from judging the aesthetic value, there was something that I could not accept. For one thing, I felt uneasy about the resemblance of their works. The organizer said they didn't give any guidance or instruction to the Down's syndrome persons at the studio. Nevertheless, I felt a common taste through their works, and I thought it was a conventional Art-ish taste.
There are some possible factors of it. The works in the exhibition were selected by the exhibition curator and the studio organizers probably, so it is natural to think that their taste would have been reflected in the selected works. Besides it, I saw a video that filmed their working, and it showed the organizer and supporters surrounded the Down's syndrome persons and stared they were painting. It is possible that their creation were affected by the reaction of surrounding people to some extent. In either case, it can be considered the stereotyped Art-ish atmosphere in the exhibition derived not from the Down's syndrome persons but from the people who support them.
I who could not understand wonderfulness of their works felt the Art-ish tastes absurd. At the risk of being misunderstood, I must confess that I had a moment that an abstract painting which was some kind of Contemporary Art-ish style in the exhibition looked like a painting that was painted by an animal, like a chimpanzee or an elephant.

The organizer explained the world of their works was named Art Immaculee, or Innocent Art. In the exhibition, that was declared as new ideology of Art. From their words, I interpreted it as new value that overcomes the conventional Art.
However, judging from this exhibition, I have to say that Innocent Art seemed merely a light version of Art Brut, or Outsider Art. It seemed the thing that removed the parts of dark and heavy from Art Brut.
To make matters worse, the Innocent Art as a light version of Art Brut looked to be in demand. They seemed to match with walls of fashionable shop or some kind of place, and people can decorate a room with them easily unlike genuine Art Brut works. Of course if a person wish for the works of Innocent Art after understanding their true value, there is no problem. However, if the value depended on the fact that the works were painted by persons with Down's syndrome, is there any difference from valuing paintings which was painted by animals?
I consider that the problem of the ideology of Innocent Art and this exhibition was lack of sense of awe to Art. I have seen many good exhibition of Art Brut, or Outsider Art, or Able Art. There was no exhibition that I could not feel any mental conflict of the people who were concerned with them. It is the necessary conditions for good exhibition of Art Brut, because problem of exploitation and discrimination always exist in Art Brut. No, it's not only in Art Brut. It is the essence of Art itself. Therefore, we can never escape from it. Of course, if you enjoy only surface of Art, you may stay away from the problem. However, if you want to go into the level of someone's soul through works of Art, the risk will be never avoidable.
About a year ago, I saw a video that filmed the tour of Japanese Art Brut artists who were going to Paris for their exhibition. I had seen the traveling exhibition in Japan and had enjoyed it very much, but the documentary video gave me a bit different feeling. Something in the video made me uneasy. For example, I saw a scene that an artist, whose works were his own underwears painted pictures on by him, was hanging about uneasily in front of his works at the exhibition. His mother explained delightfully that he wanted to take back his underwears and go back home, and the cameraman and the surrounding people laughed. When I saw that scene, I felt a pang of conscience. I felt a sense of guilt because I realized that was the very scene of exploitation.
About Art Brut, we are on a thin rope at all times. You will drop when you are not careful, so you must never forget it. Every good exhibition of Art Brut I have seen possessed much carefulness. Not only Art Brut's but also all good exhibition of Art I have seen had the carefulness in each degree. However, I must say that I could not feel the carefulness in this exhibition. Perhaps, it may have been forgotten behind the ambition for presenting the new ideology of Art.
Of course Art is good thing for us, and I have no objection to the activity of the studio. If the persons with Down's syndrome made themselves happy by making art works, it's really wonderful. Or rather, it is a wonderful thing for persons with or without Down's syndrome. It is a general goodness of Art from the ancient times, without bringing the ideology of "Innocent Art" or "Art as a Haven of Happiness."
However, it is another story that we find the value of Art in their works and enjoy them as works of art. That is the story with exploitation and discrimination. We should be extremely careful here.
I think the title of the exhibition is the symbol of fault. They called it paradise, or utopia. However, it is the truth that lack of imagination is the only way to make paradise in this world, and only people who blind themselves to every dark side of the world can live in utopia.




...What a hard work writing a diary of a year at a time is!
I should write this blog more often next year.

posted by 3 at 22:43| Diary

2013年12月29日

2013年俺的展覧会TOP10

例によって自分がどれだけ強いimpressionを受けたかだけを基準に選んだ今年見た展覧会のTOP10。例によって横着して日本語のみ。
後々「あーこの年はこんな年だったんだー」と思い返せるようにと思って毎年作っているのだが、去年散々迷った挙句に結局ランクインさせなかった「アラブ・エクスプレス展」(森美術館)が、早くも2012年という年を振り返るに当たってモノスゴク重要な展覧会だったと後悔する羽目になっているので、今年は同じ轍を踏まぬよう保険で(?)次点の展覧会もいくつか挙げてみた。というか今年はホントに印象深い展示が多かったのだ。

そんな感じで、今年の俺的TOP10はこんな感じ↓


1位:「橋本聡:私はレオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチでした。魂を売ります。天国を売ります。」青山|目黒(4〜5月)URL
2位:「あざみ野コンテンポラリーvol.4 スーパーピュア展2013」横浜市民ギャラリーあざみ野(10〜11月)URL
3位:「秘密の湖〜浜口陽三・池内晶子・福田尚代・三宅砂織」ミュゼ浜口陽三・ヤマサコレクション(5〜8月)URL
4位:「岡本太郎のシャーマニズム」川崎市岡本太郎美術館(4〜7月)
5位:「桑山忠明展 HAYAMA」神奈川県立近代美術館葉山('12年11〜1月)URL
6位:「田代一倫 はまゆりの頃に 2012年秋 福島県双葉郡楢葉町」(1〜2月)URL、「2012年 冬」(5〜6月)URL photographers'gallery+KULA PHOTO GALLERY
7位:「戦争/美術1940-1950」神奈川県立近代美術館葉山(7〜10月)URL
8位:「ル・コルビュジエと20世紀美術」国立西洋美術館(8〜11月)URL
9位:「政田武史 それはこうして現れる。世界が吹き出す時に。」HAGIWARA PROJECTS(7〜8月)
10位:「シャガールのタピスリー」渋谷区立松濤美術館('12年12〜1月)

次点(見た順)
「鈴木理策 アトリエのセザンヌ」ギャラリー小柳(2〜3月)
「フランシス・ベーコン展」東京国立近代美術館(3〜5月)URL
「生誕120年 木村荘八展」東京ステーションギャラリー(3〜5月)URL
「夜明けまえ 知られざる日本写真開拓史〜北海道・東北編」東京都写真美術館(3〜5月)URL
「山本高之 Facing the Unknown: Dark Energy」island MEDIUM+千葉市美術館1階プロジェクトルーム(6〜7月)URL、「Facing the Unknown」ケンジタキギャラリー(9〜10月)URL
「生誕130年 彫刻家・高村光太郎展」千葉市美術館(6〜8月)URL
「高木秀典 個展」ART TRACE GALLERY(9〜10月)
「アンリ・ルソーから始まる 素朴派とアウトサイダーズの世界」世田谷美術館(9〜11月)URL



以下、簡単な感想

「橋本聡:私はレオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチでした。魂を売ります。天国を売ります。」は、昨年の「14の夕べ 偽名」あたりからなんとなく予感はあったけど、橋本聡にエンターテインメント的な要素が加わるとここまで面白くなるのかという驚愕の展覧会。「突き抜けている」という意味では、他のあらゆるものを引き離して圧倒的に突き抜けた内容だった。今年はこの橋本聡の個展と横山裕一の新刊『ルーム』の二つの「突き抜けた」表現に完全に打ちのめされた年だった。
「あざみ野コンテンポラリーvol.4 スーパーピュア展2013」は、アール・ブリュット/エイブルアート系の展覧会で作家を厳選して展示に凝ればここまで凄い展覧会ができるのかという素晴らしい展覧会だった。公開制作の衝撃も忘れることができない。
「秘密の湖〜浜口陽三・池内晶子・福田尚代・三宅砂織」は、福田尚代の怖ろしいまでに美しい展示に。「美」というものが本質的に孕む酷薄さを思い知らされた気がする。展覧会全体もトーンが統一されていて好印象。
「岡本太郎のシャーマニズム」は、とても重要な展覧会。「岡本太郎の作品」の秘密にここまで深く斬り込んだ展示を自分はこれまでに見たことがない。シャーマニズムの資料映像を満載した会場のアヤシイ雰囲気も最高だった。それにしても生誕100年イベントなんかでは無駄に馬鹿盛り上りしても、こういう重要な展覧会があまり話題にならないところに「岡本太郎の作品」の不幸を見る思いがする。
「桑山忠明展 HAYAMA」「政田武史 それはこうして現れる。世界が吹き出す時に。」「高木秀典 個展」は、絵画の新たな可能性に。彼らの作品を見ると絵画の進化はゼンゼン終わってなどいないということに気付かされる。「絵画」の未来を感じさせられたいう一点においても、特筆しておくべき存在。
「田代一倫 はまゆりの頃に」は、ついに今年撮影が終了し写真集も刊行されたシリーズだが、展示も三回開催されたうちのとくに最初の二回は二室ある展示室を効果的に使ったとても印象的なものだった。去年出会って以来、この作品からは本当にいろいろなことを教えられた気がする。もはや自分の血肉と化しているほどに思い入れの強い作品になってしまった。
「戦争/美術1940-1950」「アンリ・ルソーから始まる 素朴派とアウトサイダーズの世界」は、どちらも館蔵品を中心としながらも非常に質の高い企画展。「戦争/美術」は美術作品によって1940年代という時代を追体験させるかのような展示。40年代後半が駆け足になるのが惜しかったが、定点観測的に何人かの作家に焦点を当てて部分から全体を照らし出していく構成は見事。「展覧会」という表現メディアにおける現時点での最高位にも位置するような内容だったのではないだろうか。「アンリ・ルソーから始まる」は、とかく定義の難しい「アウトサイダー・アート」を素人画から精神病患者の創作までの丁寧なグラデーションで追っていき、なおかつそれが自館のコレクション史とも重なっているという高度な構成。世田美のコレクション力も見せつけられた。
「ル・コルビュジエと20世紀美術」は、いままで自分が抱いていたル・コルビュジエに対するイメージを完全にぶち壊した展覧会。コルビュジエってこんなパンクな野郎だったのかと驚愕させられた熱い展示。コルビュジエ設計の西洋美術館での展示という効果も大きかった。
「シャガールのタピスリー」は、複製がオリジナルに聖性を帯びさせる様を視覚的に確認できるという稀有な展覧会。シャガールという作家に対して自分が持っていたイメージもこの展覧会によってかなり更新された。今年見た展覧会では最大の「拾い物」。
「鈴木理策 アトリエのセザンヌ」は、魔術的な写真展。この写真家の展示は以前見た写美の個展などに顕著だったが、見映えはするのだがややもすればそれがコケオドシ的に感じられてしまってショージキ軽く見ていたところがあった。しかし劇的な照明などの得意のギミックを廃したこの展示では、静かな環境のなかでむしろ過去に見たどの展示よりも「魔術的な感覚」が実現されていたと思う。その感覚は昨年見たセザンヌ展の印象や自分のセザンヌ作品の解釈とも一致していた。
「フランシス・ベーコン展」は、とりあえずこれだけの数のベーコン作品をまとめて見られたのは良かったのかな、と。もーこんな機会はないかもしれないし。
「生誕120年 木村荘八展」は、気にはなりつつもなかなかその全貌を知る機会のなかった作家の回顧展。こういう渋い系の良質な展覧会が増えてきたのは嬉しい。
「夜明けまえ 知られざる日本写真開拓史〜北海道・東北編」は、初回からずっと見続けているシリーズだが、北海道・東北という土地柄のせいか今回はなかでも頭抜けて面白かった。最後に展示されていた災害写真の展示も印象深い。
山本高之の個展「Facing the Unknown: Dark Energy」と「Facing the Unknown」は、他者を自作の素材とする際の不思議な作者の立ち位置に。その「謎」な感じは、平温のまま残る毒のように今でも自分のなかに留まり続けている。
「生誕130年 彫刻家・高村光太郎展」は、光太郎の彫刻の数自体はそれほど多くはないのだが、丁寧な作りが印象深かった好展示。智恵子の紙絵が大量に見られたのも収穫。


今年は遠方で話題になった展覧会&見たい展示も多かったのだが、例によって限定された行動範囲&行動パターンで生活しているため、例によって近場の展覧会しか見ていない(一応今年は上海に行ったけど、まーそれはそれとして・・・)。
とは言え東京で開催される展覧会だけでも見切れないほどの数があり、しかも最近はなんだか展覧会のレベルが全体的に上がってきている気がする。その内容も都美で見たグレコ展やターナー展のようにちょっと信じられないほどの豪華な招聘型展覧会からマニアックな企画展まで多種に渡り、とりあえず週末に出かける先にはマッタク困らなかった。
おそらくこれはとても恵まれた状況なのだろう。
posted by 3 at 19:34| 日記

2013年11月17日

Notes and portraits - Tashiro Kazutomo "When hamayuris are in bloom"

I felt difficulty in speaking words for a while when the Great East Japan earthquake happened the year before last. I was afraid that the words I said might hurt somebody, because I could not judge exact depth of wound of others.
The Fukushima nuclear plant accident made worse the situation. Because no one could say the exact damage of the radioactivity, the dispute about nuclear plants and radioactivity became like a religion war.
As a result, I felt that the world had fallen under the control of sectarianism. I felt that no word I said could escape that they were connected with a sect. It seemed like that every words in the world turned to the political words.
I consider that it was caused by the remorse of having caused a nuclear plant accident. We got the pressure that we must choose the correct answer for the future this time. I felt that society as a whole seemed to suffer from illness of "the correctness". It made me feel like suffocating.

At that time, I saw the exhibition of "When hamayuris are in bloom" that was photography work by Tashiro Kazutomo. Tashiro often went to Tohoku region and photographed people whom he met there after the earthquake.
I was astonished by the boldness of his action. Tashiro was from Kyushu and he have had no relationship to Tohoku. An outsider asked the residents to become the model of his photograph in the damaged area soon after the disaster. I could not believe such reckless action.

However, I had been completely enchanted by this work after I saw Tashiro's photographs and read his notes about the photos. I had never experienced such a shock that I got from the work. I reflected on myself and also I felt that I touched the thing such as some warm light of hope at the same time.

The style of the work is simple. They are the portraits of the people whom Tashiro met in Tohoku. He asked the people whom he met there and photographed only persons who consented. He shoot the whole body of them and he added simple notes about the photograph.
Tashiro had photographed more than 1200 people for two years. The 453 pieces of those were chosen and were published as a photobook recently.

I am fond of Tashiro's words as much as his photographs. I consider that his notes are very important in this works.
They are short sentences and the contents are the words that Tashiro heard from the people who were photographed, the episodes of the photography and the reflection of Tashiro himself.

I am sure Tashiro was aware that his act of photographing was violent. Therefore he was careful not to hurt the persons who were photographed very much.
After the violence of the earthquake, any trivial thing could become the fatal violence. If he brought himself to have understood the people it becomes already a violence. It might hurt the people in some cases.
Therefore he wrote his notes very carefully. He never imagines and wrote the inside of the people. He did not write what he could not understand. He wrote only things that he looked, heard and thought.
I consider that his attitude to respect the persons who were photographed is the life of this work.

I am sure that it needs more tens of thousands of times tense for the work Tashiro wrote about the persons whom he met in Tohoku than my difficulty in speaking words just after the earthquake. However, his notes are not coward in spite of cautious. He wrote what he must record with minimum words as much as possible.
As a result, we can read some precious words that are given in the brutal situation. Those words tell us a lot of things more than any kind of long literary work.

We can feel the tension from every words that were added to the photographs which were photographed in the early days of the disaster. Even to some casual words, we imagine the situation that the words were spoken and guess what they really means.
However, the words gradually regained normal meanings as the days passed. I think that it is an effect of the photographs. They are mere simple notes, nevertheless we can read the infinite meaning from the words when they are combined with the photographs. In between the photographs and the notes, we can read all of the words that Tashiro could not make the words.

The Tashiro's photograph style is stoic in the same way as his notes. He did not choose the models by his preference. He photographed any person whom he met there with the same format without distinction.
Therefore the persons who only visited there were photographed as "the person whom he met there" the same as the people who had lived there for many years.

I am sure the way of the equality was be to resist violence of the categorization. The violence to categorize the people as "victim" forcibly was the most dangerous thing that Tashiro had to stay away from. What made the people "victim" were the earthquake at first, and the labeling by the mass media and us next.
The work of Tashiro was to take off the label which were put on them. He met the people who had been to be an abstract and a number and recovered them as the each person who had own face.

Therefore in the Tashiro's photographs, every person who stayed there by any reason and every person who had what kind of job were treated in the same way. The value of usefulness for the reconstruction has no superiority in his photographs. The judgment that the opinion and the action are wrong or right is not being questioned there.
They were the irreplaceable persons who should be blessed only because they were there.

What Tashiro photographed was an encounter. He seems to persuade himself out of putting too much confidence in own ability that he can photograph the more things.
He must know that he cannot understand the feelings of the persons whom he photographs. He never overestimate his own ability about it.
In the first place, we never completely understand other people. It is arrogance to think that you can do it. It is a presupposition of communication that we must recognize that we cannot understand others completely.

However, Tashiro's photographs show us that the encounter was valuable and precious even if they could not understand each other. The most important thing was not to understand but to encounter.
I can feel that Tashiro blessed the encounters more than anything from his photographs. He put off every value judgment and was pleased with the encounter above all.
As a result, every person in his photograph shows unique presence as the irreplaceable person.

In the world that tends to make a sect by difference of opinion and faith, it will be a hope that we can be pleased with an encounter although we can not understand each other.
Therefore, in spite of heavy contents, I feel that I am saved when I see the Tashiro's work.

I think that I was able to understand the meaning of the existence of "others" for the first time by encountering this work. My way of looking at people around me had changed. My mind for people who live in this world together had changed completely.
It was very important for me that I could meet this work. To me, the encounter was irreplaceable.



“Kazutomo Tashiro - When hamayuris are in bloom: 2013 spring"
photographers' gallery + kula photo gallery(November,06 -November,24, 2013)
http://pg-web.net/exhibition/kazutomo-tashiro-when-hamayuris-are-in-bloom-2013-spring/

Tashiro Kazutomo "When hamayuris are in bloom"
http://satoyamasha.com/?p=98

posted by 3 at 08:51| Diary

覚え書きと肖像写真〜田代一倫『はまゆりの頃に』

 一昨年の震災の直後に感じたのは、言葉を発することの困難だった。未曾有の大災害の後で、どんな言葉を発してもそれが不用意な発言となって誰かを傷付けてしまうのではないかと恐れ、他人の受けた傷の「見えなさ」に怯えた。
 その後の原発事故の発生は、言葉の困難をさらに複雑化させた。専門家によっても見解が分かれる放射能の被害の程度の「目に見えなさ」が、原発や放射能にまつわる言説をまるで信仰の違いによる宗教対立のような様相にまで変えてしまった。
 その結果としてなのか、原発に関係しない話題でも震災後に交わされる言説は以前に比べて極端に「政治対立化(セクト化)」しているように感じる。何かについて発言することが即自分の政治的立場の表明と受け取られてしまい、どんな言葉も単純な二項対立の構図へと強制的に当てはめられてしまう危険を孕む。公共の場における発言ではとくにその窮屈さを感じる。
 おそらくそれは「“間違ったこと”を言ってはいけない」というプレッシャーなのだろう。原発事故という背負いきれないほどの負債を過去からのツケとして担わされた我々は、その責任の重さに恐怖し、きたる未来の地点から振り返ったときに今度こそは「間違ってはいけない」と自らの(あるいは他人の)言動を縛るのである。それはまるで社会全体が「正しさ」という病に罹ったかのようで、常に「正しい」側に付いて「正しい」行動と発言をしなければならないという強迫観念が、絶望にも似た閉塞感と息苦しさを感じさせていた。

 自分が田代一倫の『はまゆりの頃に』に出会ったのは、そんなときである。写真家である田代が震災直後より被災の激しかった三陸・福島の地に入り、そこで出会った人たちを撮影した作品だ。
 まず初めに驚いたのはその「怖いもの知らず」ぶりである。田代は東北とは何の縁もない九州出身の写真家であるという。そんな「余所者」が、被災の爪痕もまだ生々しい土地へと赴き、そこに住む人たちに声をかけカメラの前に立ってもらう。安全な場所でどうということのない言葉を発するだけでも「誰かを傷付けるのではないか」、「“正しくない”と誰かに批判されるのではないか」と始終怯えていた自分にとって、それは蛮勇を遥かに超えたトンデモナイ暴挙のようにも思えた。
 しかし田代の写真を見、彼が写真に付した覚え書きを読み進むうちに、自分は完全に彼の作品に魅せられてしまった。それはかつて体験したことのないような胸の奥に深く響く衝撃だった。読み進めながら自分自身を深く反省させられ、それと同時になにか暖かい希望の光のようなものに触れたような気分にもさせられた。

 作品の体裁自体はごくシンプルである。田代が被災地を旅してそこで出会った人たちの肖像写真のシリーズで、対象とするのは話をして撮影の承諾を得た人のみ。基本的に構図はすべて正面を向いた全身像で、撮影にまつわる田代自身による簡単な覚え書きがそこに付く。
 自分が始めてこの作品に出会ったのは昨年の春、新宿のkula photo gallery(photographers' gallery)で開催された個展であったが、田代はその後も撮影を続け、今年の春に撮影を終了するまでに点数にして実に1200点以上を撮影し、そのうちの453点が最近写真集として出版された。

 写真集の帯にも「肖像写真453点と覚え書き」と大きく記されている通り、この作品における言葉の存在は決して小さくない。それは多くても三行程度の短文で、内容は撮影した相手から田代が聞いた言葉であったり、撮影時のエピソードであったり、あるいは田代自身の自省であったりと様々である。
 この写真に付された文章が「覚え書き」であることには大きな意味があると思う。震災の直後に被災地に行ってそこにいる人々のポートレートを撮影するという一見きわめて暴力的にも思える田代の行動だが、その撮影にも、あるいはそこに付された文章にも「暴力的であること」に対する自覚とそれを少しでも避けようとした努力の跡が感じられる。
 つまり田代は自分のしていることの暴力性について誰よりもよくわかっている。だからこそ彼は自分の撮影に「大義」を持とうとしないのだろう。大義を持つこと自体が被写体との関係において暴力になることを知っているからだ。彼は「加害」の立場に身を置くことの困難を引き受けた上で、そのことで相手が傷付くことがないよう細心の注意を払いながら被写体との距離を慎重に測り続ける。
 震災という巨大な暴力のあとでは、どんな些細なことでも致命的な暴力になりうる。そこでは「理解した気になる」こと自体が既に暴力であり、そのことだけでも相手を傷付けかねない。
 だから田代は決して「わからない」ことは書かないのである。彼はあらゆる価値判断を保留にして、ただその場で見聞きしたことだけを「覚え書き」として記す。震災直後に自分が「誰かを傷付けるのではないか」と言葉を発することを恐怖したその感覚のおそらく何万倍もの緊張のなかで、彼は最大限の慎重さをもって記すべき言葉を選んでいる。被写体との適切な距離を保ち、相手の心のなかに土足で踏み入るような真似は決してしない。この被写体との距離の保ち方こそが、この作品の生命線なのだろう。

 たとえば「家を片付けています」の一言が添えられただけのマスク姿でこちらを見る女性の写真。彼女の立つその周囲は一面無残に崩壊した瓦礫の山で、写真に付された「2011年4月16日」の日付と「岩手県上閉伊群大槌町本町」の地名が、その言葉の意味するものの苛烈さを見るものに伝える。
 しかしそれと同時にこの言葉はどこかユーモラスな響きも備えている。現実の津波被害という悲惨な状況を一端思考の脇へと退ければ、ヒトコマ漫画の台詞にもなりそうな気がする。目元からしか表情が窺えない写真のなかの女性も、マスク越しに笑顔をつくっているように見える。もしかしたらその言葉は本当に彼女が相手を笑わそうとして言った冗談だったのかもしれない。
 しかし彼女がどんな気持ちでその言葉を発したのかは、誰にもわからない。そして重要なのは「わからない」という事実を厳粛に受けとめることなのだ。だから田代はこの言葉になにも付け加えない。一枚の写真と、それに添えられた「家を片付けています」の一言だけである。

 「わからない」ことへ決して踏みこまぬ節度を保ちながらも、田代はそこで見聞きした「伝えなければならないこと」を僅かな文字数のなかに可能な限り刻みこもうとする。その結果として、我々は苛酷な運命のなかで発せられた得難いいくつかの言葉に出会うことができる。
 二階まで被災した建物の三階部分で父親と二人で理容室を営業している男性にどんな強い覚悟で開業しているのかと思って質問したときに返ってきたという言葉、「別に、何となく続けてます」。
 震災の年が明けた元旦の夜、神社で粕汁を混ぜていた女性がごく自然な調子で語ったという「今年のは良くできたんですよ」。
 そして何気ない日常の言葉のなかにふと混ざってくる「昨日、ここで遺体を発見しました」。
 田代が写した写真と組み合わされることで、それらの言葉はどんな長大な文学作品よりも多くのことを我々に語りかけてくるように思われる。

 震災の発生からまだ日が浅い時期の言葉には、どれも異常な緊迫感が漲っている。それが現実の苛酷な状況からはかけ離れたように見える日常の何気ない言葉であっても、その裏側にあるものを嫌でも想像してしまうからだろう。
 しかし時間を追うにつれて、だんだんと日常的な言葉が字義通りの日常的な言葉として捉えられるようになってくる。それは単なる日付からの類推的な憶測ではなく、あきらかにそこに添えられた写真による効果である。どの言葉もそれだけ取ればなんということない「覚え書き」だが、しかしそれが田代の撮影した写真と組み合わされたとき、そこから汲み取れるものは無限の深さを持つのだ。
 それは抑制された「覚え書き」に徹したからこそ可能となった表現なのだろう。この距離感のなかに、作者の「言葉にはできないこと」のすべてが詰まっているのだ。

 田代の撮影スタイルも「覚え書き」の禁欲さと呼応している。彼は被写体を選ばない。そこで出会った人を差別なく同じフォーマットで撮り続ける。そのためたまたま一時的にその地を訪問していただけの人も、長年そこに住む住人たちと同じく「そこで出会った人」として撮影され、作品のなかに収められている。
 この徹底した平等性は、カテゴライズの暴力に抗するためなのだろう。本人の意志と関係なくそこにいる人たちを一律に「被災者」としてしまう暴力こそが、田代がこの作品の制作に際して、もっとも忌避すべきものだったのではないのか。
 彼らを「被災者」にしたのは、まずは巨大地震、津波、原発事故であり、次にはマスコミの報道や我々の言葉、視線によるラベリングである。田代は自らの行為がそれに荷担する危険を慎重に避けながら、出会った人ひとりひとりに貼られたラベルを剥がしていこうとする。そこに生きるひとりひとりの彼らと出会うことで、数値化・抽象化された人々を顔を持ったひとりの人間として地道に捉えなおしていく。
 だから田代の写真のなかでは、どんな職業の人も、どんな目的でそこにいる人も、等しく同じように扱われるのだ。復興の役に立つ/立たないという価値観や、あるいは主張や行動が正しい/間違っているといった価値判断は彼の写真のなかでは適用されない。どんな人であれ田代の写真に写っている人たちは、ただそこにいるだけでひとりひとりがその人として祝福されるべき存在なのである。

 すなわち田代の写真が写すものは「一期一会」なのだ。それ以上のものが自分の力で撮れると過信しないよう写真家自身が自分に言い聞かせているようでもある。
 そしてその一期一会のコミュニケーションはすべて相手の気持ちを「理解できない」ことを前提にしているのだ。そこには一片の過信もない。
 そもそもそれが誰であれ、我々は他者を完全に理解することはできない。それをできると思うのは驕りである。「理解できない」ことは他者との関わりにおける前提なのだ。
 しかし「理解できない」にも関わらず、この一期一会の出会いがいかに貴重で、いかに大切なものなのかを田代の写真は教えてくれる。大切なのは「理解する」ことではなく、この「出会い」そのものなのだ。
 田代の写真からはどんな価値判断も、主張も、意味付けも後回しにして、まずはその出会いへの祝福が伝わってくる。だからこそ彼の写真のなかの人々は、誰もが掛け替えのないそのひととして無類の存在感を発しているのだ。

 互いを理解できずともただこの出会いを喜ぶという姿勢は、主義主張や信仰の違いによってセクト化していく世界のなかで、暗闇に灯る仄かな明かりのようにも感じられる。だからこんなにも重いものを背負った内容にも関わらず、田代の写真を見た後はなにか救われたような気持ちになるのだろう。
 この作品に出会えたことで自分は初めて「他者」の存在の意味に気付けたような気がする。同じこの世界に住む自分以外の人々に対する見方が、あきらかに変わった。
 自分にとってもこの作品との出会いは、他の何ものにも代えがたい大切なものになったのである。



「田代一倫 はまゆりの頃に 2013年 春」
photographers' gallery + kula photo gallery(2013年11月6日〜24日)
http://pg-web.net/exhibition/kazutomo-tashiro-when-hamayuris-are-in-bloom-2013-spring

田代一倫写真集『はまゆりの頃に 三陸、福島 2011〜2013年』(里山社)
http://satoyamasha.com/?p=98
posted by 3 at 08:17| 日記

2013年11月11日

About a miracle

There was a calm and peaceful atmosphere in that place. Maybe because there were many staff and participants, everyone seemed to be friendly and relaxed.
In such a warm atmosphere, I stood in utter amazement while watching two painters who drew pictures on the floor. I told myself, "What in the world is happening here?"

It was a scene in the exhibition "Azamino Contemporary vol.4 SUPER PURE 2013 - my rule, my style" which I saw in Yokohama citizen gallery Azamino the other day. When I went to there, the open studio event was holding, and two painters who joined the exhibition were drawing the pictures in the gallery.
The two painters who groveled on the floor and drew were Inoue Masaru and Tanaka Mutsumi from Aterier Yamanami. It was the first time that both of them exhibited their works at an exhibition. It was less than one year yet since they have begun to draw pictures. Incidentally, Inoue is 70 years old and Tanaka is 57 years old.
They motivated by neighboring friends in the studio and have begun to draw a picture suddenly in spite of they have not drawn a picture until they were current age. I think it was a good story.

However, it was more than a good story. Because their works were amazing.
The pictures they drew were bigger than their heights. Inoue drew with pencil and Tanaka drew with pastel crayons on such a large paper. Inoue's monochrome pencil drawing was a picture of deformed figure of human that reminded of ancient hieroglyphic art a little. Tanaka's pastel drawing was a colorful picture of portrait that was drawn boldly and I felt slightly sensual feeling from it.
I had never seen the pictures such as both of them and they were not the picture which a painter whose career is less than in one year could draw.
Both of them dressed up for the event. The appearance which two of them faced each other and drew avidly was an impressive scene.

However, it was not the reason why I was impressed by. I was impressed by the feeling that the real art was appearing here. I had never impressed so much though I had seen the scenes that artists create their works many times before.
Why was I so impressed by?

SUPER PURE 2013 was the exhibition that showed the works of 16 artists who have handicaps. They would be included in so-called art brut(outsider art).
It is difficult to define "art brut". Originally it was the word that meant to about the creation of the mental patients, but the works of other kind of people are also included today.
The common definition of art brut is that the works that are made by people who have not gotten a formal art education. However, all of the works which the person who have not gotten a formal art education made are not considered as art brut. That is still not enough.
I am sure that Jean Dubuffet should have had a shock from the works at first when he invented the concept of art brut. The shock must be essence of art brut.
When I see a work of art brut, I usually get a strong emotion more than logic. The important part is "more than logic." I think that the definition of art brut "person who have not gotten a formal art education" is like the sign to notice us that is "more than logic."

The reason why I was impressed to see the secene that two aged persons drew the pictures at the open studio event was that it was "more than logic." In other words, I was impressed to see a miracle.
I think it was true that the fact that they were old and had handicaps became the big factor for me to recognize that the scene was a miracle. However, it was not the essence. It was only something like a tag that reminds us that it was a miracle.
The miracle was the pictures they drew. The miracle was their creation itself.
I think that they themselves understood it better than anyone else. They were absorb themselves in their creation without caring the staff who was concerned about their physical condition ordered them to take a break. I could feel that they were amazed at their own ability that they had not noticed for a long time and were glad of the creation.
In other words the miracle that happened there is the thing included in all creation as possibility. No, it is included in life itself.

Why do we need a miracle? Why are we so impressed when we see a miracle?
Probably it may be because we cannot "believe" that it is already a miracle that we are here now while we "know" it.
We cannot explain the miracle that we are here now with words. It is necessary for us to transcend a logics to be able to believe it. It is the reason why we need a miracle.

A miracle changes our understanding of the world completely. We realize that the world where we live is so large and filled with unknown possibilities when we see a miracle.
A miracle is for all people. Because a miracle changes our understanding not only about a person's ability but also about the structure of this world.
If there is a miracle in the world, the meaning of our own existence changes. We can believe that the limits in the world are unknown. It may be the reason that we are encouraged when we see a miracle even if it is a small one.
A miracle gives a hope for our life.

I have the unforgettable words that I heard from the teacher of the art cram school when I was young. It was the words that "the drawing skill does not improve gradually but becomes good suddenly."
Apart from what the teacher really meant, I heard the words as heavenly revelation.
Yes! Drawing skill will becomes good suddenly! In spite of my works is poor now, the one which I draw next may become something great! The possibility that my next work become the picture which anyone have never seen is not zero!
I believed it and I have continued drawing a picture until today.
I still believe that the picture I draw next may become something extraordinary. I still believe that the miracle will happen. I continue drawing because I believe a miracle.

The reason why I am impressed by the works of art brut and all kinds of arts which transcend logics will be that I recognize some kind of "sign" there. It is the sign that there is a miracle in this world.
If there is a miracle in the world, the place is filled with infinite possibility.



"Azamino Contemporary vol.4 SUPER PURE 2013 - my rule, my style"
Yokohama citizen gallery Azamino(October 26 - November 17, 2013)
http://artazamino.jp/event/contemporary2013

posted by 3 at 20:54| Diary

奇跡について

 そこは明るく和やかな空気に包まれた空間だった。スタッフや関係者の方たちが多かったためだろうか、笑い声や話し声が絶えず、飾らない雰囲気のなかで誰もがごく自然に振るまっている。
 そんな穏やかな空気のなか、床に這いつくばるようにして夢中で絵を描き続ける二人の絵描きの姿を見ながら、自分はひとり呆然と立ちつくしていた。
 「イッタイここでなにが起こっているのか?」

 それは先日横浜市民ギャラリーあざみ野で見た展覧会「あざみ野コンテンポラリーvol.4 スーパーピュア展2013―my rule, my style」での一コマである。たまたま自分が訪れたときに公開制作のイベントが行われていて、出品作家のうちの四人が展示室で実際に制作の様子を披露していたのだ。床に這いつくばるよう絵を描いていた二人というのは、やまなみ工房から出品していた井上優さんと田中睦美さんの二人の新人画家である。
 「新人画家」というのは展覧会に出品するのは二人とも初めてで、これがデビュー展だからである。それだけではない。驚くことに二人とも絵を描き始めてまだ一年に満たないというのだ。ちなみに井上さんは今年70歳、田中さんは57歳の超遅咲きデビューである。
 この年齢になるまで芸術的な訓練を受けたことも本格的な制作をしたこともなかった高齢な二人が、周囲の雰囲気に刺激されて突然絵を描き始めた。ここまでは「いい話」だ。

 ところがその描いている絵がトンデモナイのだ。二人とも畳三畳分くらいはある巨大サイズの紙に、井上さんは鉛筆のみを使ったどこか古代の象形芸術のようでもあり現代のグラフィティのようでもある記号的かつ躍動的なモノクロームの絵。田中さんはパステルを使って大胆に描いた華やかで色彩豊かな肉感的な絵。どちらも「今までに見たことのない絵」であり、とても画歴一年未満の絵描きが描く絵ではない。
 公開制作ということだからなのか、井上さんはネクタイを締めた姿での制作。田中さんの服装もなかなかお洒落だ。晴れの舞台で超遅咲き新人画家の二人が向かい合わせになって夢中で絵を描いている姿はとても幸福な光景で、それだけでもなにか胸にこみ上げてくるものがある。
 しかし自分が呆然としていたのは、単に幸福な光景に感激していたからではない。それは「いまここで芸術が立ちあがっている!」という腹の底からわき上がってくるような感動だったのだ。他人の制作の現場に居合わせた経験は過去に何度かあるが、ここまで興奮したのは記憶にないかもしれない。この感覚はいったい何に由来しているのか?

 スーパーピュア展2013は「16名の障がいのあるアーティストたちの作品を展示」する展覧会ということで、正規の美術教育を受けていない作家による制作を指す「アール・ブリュット」や、福祉の現場で作業所や工房のようなかたちで制作を行う「障がい者アート(エイブル・アート)」といったカテゴリーに位置付けられる作家たちの作品を集めた展覧会である。
 アール・ブリュットの定義は難しい。アール・ブリュットと障がい者アートは違うと言う人もいるし、同じだと言う人もいる。前者が作品を受け手(需要)の立場が主の視点であるのに対し、後者には制作する側の立場の視点も入っているところに違いがあると忖度することもできないわけではないのだが、しかし「作品」として受容されるために同じ土俵に上がった瞬間にそれらの事情はリセットされるわけで、それが定義付けをより困難にしているようにも思われる。
 そもそもこの種の作品を表す言葉として「アール・ブリュット」、「アウトサイダー・アート」、「ボーダレス・アート」、「エイブル・アート」、「ワンダー・アート」、「スピリット・アート」、「ポコラート」などと雨後のタケノコのように新たな名称が次々と生み出されるのも、偏にその定義の難しさに由来するためなのではないだろうか。

 ただ言葉で説明できなくても、「見ればわかる」こともある。アール・ブリュットの作品を見ると、理屈を超えてなにか胸に迫って来るものがある。そもそも前世紀半ばにジャン・デュビュッフェがアール・ブリュットの用語と概念を発明したときも、まずなによりも作品から受ける衝撃が先にあったはずだ。
 そしてそのとき重要となるのは「理屈を超えて」の部分なのである。「正規の美術教育を受けていない」といったアール・ブリュットの条件は「理屈を超えている」ことを認識するためのわかりやすい記号のようなものとして解釈することもできるのではないだろうか。

 自分がスーパーピュア展2013の公開制作を見て感動したのも、それが「理屈を超えた」光景だったからだ。言ってしまえば、それは「奇跡」を目の当たりにした感動だったのである。
 そのとき彼らが高齢であったり障がい者であったりすることが、自分がその光景を「理屈を超えている」と認識するための大きな要因となっていたことは確かだろう。
 しかしそれは本質ではないのだ。言ってしまえば、それが奇跡であることを我々に気付かせるためのタグのようなものに過ぎない。
 奇跡の本体は、彼らが描く絵にこそある。その創造そのものにある。
 それを一番理解しているのは、当の本人たちだったのではないだろうか。体調を心配したスタッフに休憩を促されても意に介さずに夢中になって絵を描き続ける二人からは、「自分のなかにこんな能力があったとは!」と今まさに自分が為している奇跡に驚き、創造の喜びに浸っている様が見ているこちら側にも伝わってきた。
 つまりそこで起こっている奇跡は、本来すべての創造行為に可能性として含まれているものなのである。いや我々の生そのものに含まれるものだと言ってよい。

 そもそもなぜ我々は奇跡を必要とするのか? 奇跡を目の当たりにすると、なぜこんなにも感動するのか?
 おそらくそれは我々が「知りながらも、信じられない」からではないだろうか。つまりいま自分が目にしているものが、いま自分がここにいることが、既に「奇跡」であることをだ。
 我々が目にするものには全て言葉による「意味」が付与されている。そのことによって我々は世界を理解し、日々の生活を可能にしているのだが、しかしそれだけではこの世界が存在することの不思議、我々がいまここにいることの謎を理解することはできない。
 この世界には我々の理解を超えるものが存在することを、「目に見えるもの」がこの世界のすべてではないことを“実感”するためには、なによりも「理屈を超える」ことが必要となる。奇跡はそのために必要とされるのだ。

 奇跡を目の当たりにすると、我々は世界に対する認識を一新する。自分がいた場所はこんなにも広大で未知の可能性に満ちた場所だったのかと気付かされる。
 奇跡は万人に向けて開かれている。なぜならばそれは「この世界」そのものの成り立ちへの認識を変えるからだ。もしこの世に奇跡が存在するならば、それは自分自身の存在の意味も大きく変えるのである。どんな小さな奇跡に対しても我々がそれを見ることによって勇気付けられるのはそのためだろう。奇跡は我々の生に対して希望を与えるものなのである。

 昔、大学受験のために美術予備校に通っていたとき、指導をしていた講師が言っていた言葉でいまでも忘れられないものがある。それは「絵は徐々に上手くなるものではなく、ある日突然いきなり上手くなるものだ」というものだった。その講師がどのような意味合いでその言葉を言ったのかは定かではないが、当時なかなか思ったように絵が描けず悩んでいた自分にとって、それは天啓のように響いた。そうか! 絵は突然上手くなるものなのか! だったらいまはこんなにグダグダでも、次に描く絵は自分でも信じられないくらいの傑作になるかもしれない! そう単純に思い込んだのが、実に現在にまで続いているのだ。
 つまり自分が二十年以上もひたすら次の作品、次の作品と「次」を追い求めてきたのも、次に描く絵こそ今までに誰も見たことがないようなトンデモナイものが現れるかもしれないと期待するからなのであろう。次の絵でこそきっと奇跡は起こるに違いないと信じているからこそ、自分は今でも「次の絵」を描き続けるのだ。

 自分がアール・ブリュットの、いやあらゆる種類の表現のなかに潜む「理屈を越えたもの」に感動するのは、そこになにかの「サイン」を認めるからなのだろう。それはこの世界に奇跡が存在するという証なのである。
 そこに奇跡が存在するならば、世界は無限の可能性に満ちているのだ。



「あざみ野コンテンポラリーvol.4 スーパーピュア展2013―my rule, my style」
横浜市民ギャラリーあざみ野(2013年10月26日〜11月17日)
http://artazamino.jp/event/contemporary2013
posted by 3 at 20:51| 日記

2013年11月04日

Another code

I went to Shanghai for my solo exhibition the other day. Travel to a foreign country is really tough for me because I seldom travel. I was unable to speak not only Chinese but also English at all during the travel. In the foreign country, my English skill fell to lower than dog level. It was almost a mute.
Because I couldn't speak any languages at all, I could do nothing and could go nowhere by myself. All people who met me there were perplexed and treated me like a retard and I behaved like so. I was utterly disgusted with myself during my stay.

However, in fact, the feeling of alienation as a foreigner in a foreign country is not new to me. It is because I am always feeling the similar feeling in everyday life.

For example, it is a little bit hard for me to enter a shop which I have never entered before. When I have to eat out, I am in the habit of entering a familiar restaurant or a chain restaurant.
The reason why I seldom go to an unfamiliar restaurant is because I do not know the custom of the place. Of course I know that the custom in restaurants is not so different among the restaurants. However, I am apt to be afraid of a bit of mistake.
It does not become a serious matter even if I order in the wrong way at a restaurant. However, people (especially me) tend to be extremely afraid of behaving in a wrong way in an unfamiliar place.

It is result of the codes. Probably I am afraid of getting a wrong code.
There are a huge number of codes that you must obey in every situation in the modern society. We are afraid of mistaking them.
If you cannot understand this opinion, please think about a dress code. The fear that attends at the party in improper clothes may share anyone.

Why are we extremely afraid of mistaking a correct code? It is because that a person who misses the code is treated as a foreign body in that place. He will be the laughingstock and being left out, because the role of codes is to unite the membership of community by removing outsiders. We obey codes, because we fear becoming outsiders.

In other words an outsider is a person who does not understand the codes.
I have been considering myself as an outsider since when I was in high school. And I have been hating the codes since then.

Some might say that you should ask somebody if you do not understand the code. That is proper advice. However, asking a question to someone is difficult mission for the certain people like me. It is because we have to understand the advanced codes to do the communication with the language skillfully. It is the most often the case that somebody is found out that he is an outsider when he asks a question.

Of course it is a misunderstanding to think you to be safe if you do not talk.
All the things that are represented in this world are connected to the codes. You are categorized by all visible things, for example, clothes, hairstyle, looks, figure, gesture, habits, manner of speaking, belongings, property, family, friends and acquaintances, works, life style, etc. You can never escape from it.

It results from the fact that we can judge the value from only visible things in this world. Even if you have a splendid thought, it is the same as not existing unless you express it on any code.
Therefore the represented image of you is your substance in this world. It is the same as "you" do not exist in this world if you do not have any code for expressing "yourself". It is the reason that people who want to make themselves look better make efforts to learn the codes.

Then, what should the "outsider" who cannot master the codes like me do? If I only run about trying to escape from the codes for fear, I will be the same as dead in socially. It is similar to me in abroad.

More than that, I should shout with the different code from the things in this world. For me, the original meaning of Art is such a thing. It is "the another code".
However, Art today has become a code in this world. Therefore people who do not know the codes in Art are removed from there as an outsider. It seems ironical to me.
If Art was a thing that is defined with codes, it has no meaning for me. More important to me is being an outsider.
What I have to do is not learning the codes of the Art but resisting against being categorized with any codes.
I want to shout loudly with the another code which is completely different from anything. I want to derange the codes in this world with it.

It is the reason why I draw and it is a small revenge for the world from an outsider.

posted by 3 at 10:31| Diary